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PLATE, XxX “Sine Nie

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ANIMAL KINGDOM

Based upon the Writings of the Eminent Naturalists,

AUDUBON, WALLACE, BREHM, WOOD, AND OTHERS

+++. Edited by.... HUGH CRAIG, M. A.,

Trinity College, Cambridge,

-.- WITH...

SIXTY-FOUR FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS Accurately and Beautifully Executed in EIGHT COLORS AND TINTS.

VOLUME TWO.

NEW YORK: ~.. JOHNSON & BAILEY,

» I4and 116 Nassau Street.

WEED-PARSONS PRINTING CO., PRINTERS, ELECTROTYPERS AND BINDERS, ALBANY, N, Ys

CONTENTS OF VOLUME TWO.

SIRENTA.

THE SEA COWS. The Order Sirenia (397)—Mermaids (397)—The Family Manatide (398)—The Manatees of erica (399)—Their Voracity and Laziness (399)—Modes of Capture (399)—Tame Specimens (3 99)—The Florida Manatee (400)—The African Lamantin (400)—The Eastern Dugong (400)— The Australian Dugong (401)—The Northern Sea Cows (401)—Steller’s Description (401)— Extinct since 1768 (403).

DEN Gill LAT Ac,

CHAPTER I. : HOOFED ANIMALS. © The Order Ungulata (407)—The Numerous Families (407)—The Ruminants (407)—Their _ Peculiar Stomach (408)—Horns (408)—Antlers (408)—Extinct Species (408)—The Original Horse _ Protohippus (409)—Gradual Development (409)—The Family Equidz ((409)—The Genus Equus _____ (409)—The Horse (410)—The Tarpan or Wild Horse of Tartary (410)—The Mustang or Wild Horse of America (411).

‘CHAPTER II. THE ARAB AND THE BARB. Early Domestication of the Horse (416)—The Horse in Egypt (416)—Assyria—J udza (416)— reece—Persia (417)—Bits and Stirrups (417)—Chariot Races (417)—The Arab Horse (418)— Exaggerated Pedigrees (419)—The Best Arabs (419)—Their Training (419)—Attachment of the Arab for his Mare (420)—Speed and Endurance (421)—The Barb (422)—The Same Horse as the Arab (422)—Abd-el-Kader on the Horse (422).

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III. THE RACE-HORSE AND TROTTING HORSE.

(427)—The Trotting-Horse (428)—Flora Temple (431)—Steve Maxwell Goose Julie Maud S (432)—The Narragansett Pacers (432)—Pocahontas 432)

CHAPTER IV. EUROPEAN HORSES.

The auater (434)—The Hackney (434)—The Russian Horse (436)—The Austrian Horse (43 cS —The Holstein Horse (438)—The French Horse (438)—The Italian Horse (440)—The Races at

Rome (440)—The Spanish Horse (440)—The Shetland Pony (441)—The Carriage Horse (443)— The Cart Horse (443)—The Percheron Horse (443),

CHAPTER V. ‘THE WILD AND THE COMMON ASS.

The Wild Asses (445)—The Kulan or Dziggetai (445)—Their Speed (446) 06 ee (446)—The Wild Ass of the Bible (447)—The African Wild Ass (448)—The Common Ass (448 —Its Patience—Its Intelligence (449)—The Egyptian Ass (450). f

@HUAP Mas RS vale

THE ZEBRAS.

The Zebras or Tiger-Horses (452)—The Quagga (452)—The Dauw, or Burchell’s Zebra (453)— oe Harris’s Description of it (454)—The Zebra Proper (454)—Hunting the Zebra (455)—Cross- Breeds (456)—The Mule (456)—The Hinny (456)—Instances of their Fertility (457)—Darwinism

(457).

CHAPTER VII. THE TAPIRS. The Family Tapiridz (458)—The American Tapir (458)—Its Trunk (459)—Its Habits (459)— _ i The Tapir as a Domestic Auimal (460)—A Tapir Hunt (461)—Peculiar Marks of the Young Tapir (461)—The Malay Tapir (462)—Its Trunk (462)—Its Color (462)—Discovery of the Animal (462)—Chinese Account (463)—The Pinchaque (463)—Baird’s Tapir (463). ik

CHAPTER VIII. THE RHINOCEROS.

The Family Rhinocerotide (464)—General Description (464)—The Horn—Peculiar Struc. ture of the Horn (465)—Known to the Ancients (466)—Wood-cut by Albert Durer (406)—Arab “ie Superstitions (466)—Haunts of the Rhinoceros (466)—A Nocturnal Animal (467)—Its Food— Its Habits (467)—1ts Senses (468)—Its Fits of Rage (468)—Maternal Affection (469)—Its Friends the Small Birds (469)—Captive Rhinoceroses (470)—Uses of its Hide (470).

CHAPTER IX. THE ASIATIC RHINOCEROSES.

The One-horned Rhinoceroses (470)—The Indian Rhinoceros (470)—Its Thick Hide (470)— ‘i Mode of Hunting (473)—The Wara or Javanese Rhinoceros (473)—The Emperor Baber (474)—

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CONTENTS.

\ a “The Two-horned Rhinoceros or Badak of Sumatra (474)—The Fire-eating Rhinoceros (476)—The _ Rough-eared Rhinoceros (476). CHAPTER X. THE AFRICAN RHINOCEROS.

The Borele or Little Black Rhinoceros (477)—The Sword-Hunters of Abyssinia (479)—The - Keitloa (479)—Their Fierceness (480)—The Mohogoo or White Rhinoceros (481)—Hunting Adventure of Mr. Oswell (482)—The Kobaoba (484)—Probability of its Extinction (484).

CHAPTER XI. THE HIPPOPOTAMUS.

, The Hippopotamus or River Horse (485)—Description (486)—Habits edna Haunts (487)—Food -(487)—Violence when Provoked (488)—Maternal Affection (488)—Modes of Hunt- ing (489)—Pitfalls and Downfalls (489)—Harpooning (489)—The Hippopotamus in Captivity

“ae (491)—The Small or Liberian Hippopotamus (492).

hi ad " .

CHAPTER XII. THE PECCARIES. The Swine Family (493)—General Characteristics (493)—The Peccaries (494)—The Collared

Peceary (494)—Its Courage and Fierceness (495)—The White-lipped Peccary (495)—Its Habits ee of Hunting the Peccary (496)—Flesh of the PRES (497).

CHAPTER XIII. THE TRUE SWINE. __ The Genus Sus (498)—Religious Prohibitions (498)—The Boar of Valhalla (499)—The Boar’s Head (499)—The Wild Boar of Europe (499)—Hunting the Wild Boar (500)—The Wild Hog of India (501)—The Domestic Hog (502)—Anecdotes of the Hog (502)—Breeds of Hogs (504)—The Berkshire (504)—Trichiniasis (504).

CHAPTER XIV. THE RIVER-HOGS, BABYROUSSA, AND WART-HOGS.

The River Hogs (506)—The Pencilled Hog (506)—The Bush Hog, or Bosch Vark (507)— Edwards’ River-Hog (508)—The Babyroussa (508)—Its Peculiar Tusks (508)—The Wart-Hogs (509)}—Hideous Appearance (510)—The African Wart-Hog, or Vlacke Vark (510)—The Wart- Hog of Hilian or Engallo (511). j

CHAPTER XV. THE CAMEL. The Ruminants (512)—The Camelide (512)—Tke Camels of the Old World (513)—The Arabian Camel, or Dromedary (514)—The Camel in the Bible (515)—The Camel in Europe (515) _ —The Camel in Africa (515)—Its Food (516)—Its Powers of Resisting Thirst (516)—Its speed ___ (§17)—Mode of Riding (517)—Its Behavior when Loading (518)—Its Vices (519)}—Anecdote of _ Latif Pacha (520)—Its Value (521)—The Two-humped Camel of Bactria (522).

SO ee See ee

‘CONTENTS,

CHAPTER XVI THE LLAMAS.

The American Camelidz (524)—The Genus Auchenia (524)—The Guanaco (525)—Its Hi: (526)—The Llama (527)—Its Use as a Beast of Burden ese Alpaca or Paco (528). Wool (528)—The Vicuna (529)—Indian Hunts (530).

CHAPTER XVII. : THE MOUSE DEER. | i

The Tragulidz or Hornless deer (532)—Disputes of Naturalists (532)—The Kanchil ag Its Appearance and Habits (533)—Attempts to introduce it to Europe (534).

t

CHAPTER XVIIL- THE DEER.

The Cervidz Cota: Antlers (535)—The Process of Growth of the Antler (536)—T fet Shedding of the Velvet (536)—Habits of the Cervidee (538)—The Various Genera a !

Moose of Canada (541)—Habits—Modes of Hunting (541).

CHAPTER XIX. THE REINDEER AND THE CARIBOU.

The Reindeer (544)—Its Life in Northern Europe (545)—Its Life in Siberia (546)—Its Life when Domesticated (547)—Its Value (547)—The Caribou (548)—Modes of Hunting it (548).

CHAPTER XxX. THE TRUE DEER. Se

The True Deer (550)—The Wapiti (550)—The Red Deer of Europe (552)—The Virginian F Deer or Carcajou (554)—The Persian Deer (556)—The Indian Species (556)—The Barasinga (556)—The Axis Deer (557)—The Sambur (557)—The Maned Stag (557)—The Hog Deer (558)— The South American Species (558)—The Pampas Deer (558)—The Red Deer or Guasupita (559),

CHAPTER XXI. THE FALLOW DEER, ROE DEER, AND MUSK DEER.

The Genus Dama (560)—Fallow Deer (560)—Genus Capreolus (562)—Roe Deer (562)— Genus Cervulus (564)—Muntjak or Kidang eae aa Moschus (565)—Musk Deer (565)— - Its Abode—Habits—The Musk (566).

CHAPTER XXII.

THE GIRAFFE. The Camelopardalidz or Giraffes (568)—Its Size and Appearance (569)—Its Habitat (570)— Its adaptation to its Location (570)—Its Movements (570)—Its Food (571)—Its Senses (572) —Giraffes in London and aus (572)—Modes of Hunting (572)—Meaning of the Word | Giraffe (573).

CONTENTS. Vii

CHAPTER XXIII. THE HOLLOW-HORNED RUMINANTS.

The Bovidz (574)—The Thirteen Sub-families (574)—The Bovine (575)—The Genus Bos (575)—The Domestic Ox (575)—The Wild Cattle (576)—The Cattle of the Pampas (577)— Cattle of Africa (578)—Domestic Cattle (579)—The Highland Cattle (582)—The Durham (582)— The Alderney (582).

CHAPTER XXIV. THE BISONS.

The Bonassus or European Bison (584)—Called also the Aurochs (584)—The Real Aurochs Extinct (584)—The Forest or Bialowicz (584)—Description of the Bonassus (585)—The Bison of the Caucasus (586)——The American Bison or Buffalo (586)— Enormous Numbers (586)—Terrible Destruction (587)—Estimate of Numbers Killed (588)—The Mountain Buffalo (589)—Death of a Bull (590).

CHAPTER XXV. : EASTERN CATTLE.

The Domestic Cattle of India (591)—The Zebu (591)—The Wild Cattle of India (592)—Genus Bibos (593)—The Gayal (593)—The Gaur (594)—The Banteng (595)—Genus Poephagos (595)— The Yak (595)—The Plough Yak (596)—Hunting the Yak (597)—Genus Anoa (597)—The Chamois Buffalo or Celebes (597)—Its Fierceness (598).

CHAPTER XXVI. THE BUFFALOES. The Genus Bubalus (599)—The Cape Buffalo (599)—Drayson’s Account (600)—Buffalo

Shooting (602)—The Indian Buffalo (602)—Buffalo and Tiger Fights (603)—Williamson’s Account (604)—The Kerabau (605)—The Domesticated Buffalo (605)—Its Habits—Its Uses (606).

CHAPTER XXVII. THE ANTELOPES.

The Antelopes (607)—The Eland (607)—The Koodoo (609)—The Bosch-bok (610)—The Nylghau (611)—The Passan (613)—The Beisa (614)—The Sabre Antelope (614)—The Addax (614)—The Sable Antelope (615)—The Blau Bok (616).

CHAPTER XXVIII. THE GAZELLES.

The Gazelle (617)—Its Beauty and Grace (617)—The Ariel Gazelle (618)—The Jairou (619)— The Spring-Bok (620)—Its Immense Numbers (620)}—The Dseren (622)—The Sasin (623)—The Pallah (624)—The Saiga (624)—The Sub-family Antilocaprine (625)—The Prong Horn (625).

CHAPTER XXIX. THE LESSER ANTELOPES.

The Ourebi (627)—The Klippspringer (628)—The Water Buck (628)—The Blue Buck (630) —The Musk Antelope 629)—The Duyker Bok (630)—The Rhoode Bok (631)—The Chickara

(635)—The Mountain Goat of the Rocky Mopntains (638).

CHAPTER XXX. GOATS AND IBEXES.

The Genus Capra (637)—The Goats (637)—The Bezoar Goat or Paseng (639)—The Cane mere Goat (639)—The Angora Goat (640)—The Mamber Goat (641)—The Markhor and Tahi

_(641)—The Egyptian Goat (641)—The Ibexes (642)—The Alpine Ibex (642)—The ge Ibex (643)—The Arabian Ibex (644).

CHAPTER XXXI. THE SHEEP AND THE MUSK-OX.

The Aoudad (646)—The Moufflon (647)—The Argali (647)—The Katshkar (648)—The Big Horn (648)—Its Habits (649)—Fat-tailed Sheep (649)—The Cretan Sheep (650)—The Southdown ~ (651)—The Leicester (651)—The Merino (652)—The Highland Sheep (653)—The Genus Ovibos “o (653)}—The Musk-ox of North America (654). tt

PRO BO sit PDEA:

CHAPTER I. ELEPHANTS IN GENERAL.

The Order Proboscidea—Derivation of Name (657)—The Family Elephantidz (657)—Fossil Elephants—The Mammoth (657)—The Mastodon (658)—The Elephant (659)—Its Trunk—Its Tusks (660)—The Elephant in History (661)—In the East—In Rome—In Modern Times (603).

CHAPTER II. THE ASIATIC ELEPHANT.

The Asiatic Elephant (665)—Its Use (666)—Mode of Capture in Ceylon (666)—Points of a et Good Elephant (669)—White Elephants (670)—Funeral of a White Elephant (670)—The Dwar ye Elephant (671).

CHAPTER III. THE ELEPHANT.

The African Elephant—Difference from the Indian Elephant (672)—Hunting the Elephant (672)—Delegorgue (672)—Gordon Cumming (673)—The Abyssinian Hock-cutters” (674)— Captive Elephants (676)—Baby Elephants (676)—Anecdotes of Elephants (677).

HY RACOLD E Ay

THE ROCK RABBITS. The Order Hyracoidea (681)—The Genus Hyrax (681)—Its Characteristics (682).

oh

CONTENTS. ix

RODENTIA.

CHAPTER I. RATS AND MICE.

The Order Rodentia (687)—The Family Muridz (688)—Rats and Mice (688)—The Black Rat (688)—The Brown Rat (688)—The Mouse (689)—The Harvest Mouse (689)—The Barbary Mouse (690)—The Hamster (690)—The Musk Rat (692)—The Water Rat (693)—The Field Mouse (693)—Wilson’s Meadow Mouse (694)—Le Conte’s Mouse (691)—The Cotton Rat (6y2)—The

Lemming (695). CHAPTER II

“MOLE RATS, POUCH RATS, AND BEAVERS. The Mole Rat (696)—The Jerboa (697)—The Alactaga (697)—The Cape Leaping Hare (697). —The Hudson Bay Jumping Mouse (698)—The Fat Dormouse (698)—The Common Dormouse (699)—The Pouched Rats (699)—The Beavers (7o1)—The American Beaver (702)—The European

Beaver (704). CHAPTER III

THE SQUIRRELS AND MARMOTS.

The Family Sciuride (707)—The European Squirrel (707)—The Javanese Squirrel (708)— The Hare Squirrel (708)—The Black Squirrel (708)—The Gray Squirrel (708)—The Northern Gray Squirrel (7o9)—The Red Squirrel (709)—The Long-haired Squirrel (710)—The Flying Squirrel (710)—The American Flying Squirrel (711)—The Taguan (711)—The Chipmuck (712)— The Leopard Marmot (713)—The Marmot (714)—The Babac (715)—The Woodchuck (715)—The

Prairie Dog (716). CHAPTER IV.

THE SEWELLELS, PORCUPINES, AND CAVIES.

The Family Haploodontide (718)—The Family Chinchillide (718)—The Chinchillas and Visachas (719)—The Octodontide (720)—The Hutia Conga (720)—The Degu (721)—The Tuko- tugo (722)—The Gundy (722)—The Coypu (723—The Ground Pig (723)—The Canadian Porcu- pine (724)—The Tufted-tailed Porcupines (726)—The Agouti (726}—The Sooty Paca (727)—The Capybara (727)—The Guinea Pig (728)—The Mara (728)—The Pikas (729).

CHAPTER V.

HARES. AND RABBITS.

The Family Leporidz (730)—The American Hares (730)—The Polar Hare (730)—The North- ern Hare (731)—The Wood Hare (731)—The Jackass Rabbit (731)—The African Hares (731)— The Sand Hare (732)—The Common Hare (732)—The Alpine Hare (733)—The Rabbit (733)— The Wild Rabbit (734)—The Domestic Rabbit (734).

EDENTATA.

CHAPTER I. THE SLOTHS AND ARMADILLOS.

The Edentata (737)—The Sloths (737)—The Two-toed Sloth (738)—The Ai or Three-toed Sloth (738)—The Spotted Sloth (739)—The Scaly Ant-eaters (739)—The Phatagin (739)—The

Ee (740)—The Tatouhon Gases Giant Aemadilio 49)—The Tatousy ( Armadillo (741)—The Apar (741)—The Picheogo (742). «

CHAPTER II.

THE AARD VARK AND ANT-EATERS.

The Aard Vark of the Cape (743)—The Great Ant-eater or Tamanoir (744)—The Tar n (745)—The Little Ant-eater (746).

.

MARSUPIALIA. CHAPIFER| 1)

THE OPOSSUMS AND BANDICOOTS.

The Marsupials (749)—The True Opossum (749)—The Virginia Opossum (750)—Merri: Opossum (750)—The Crab-eating Opossum (750)—The Yapock (750)—The Pouched M The Tasmanian Devil (751)—The Native Cat (751)—The Zebra Wolf Siagea: Native An eater (752)—The Striped Bandicoot (752)—The Chzropus (753).

CHAPTER II. THE KANGAROOS, BETIS SIRS AND WOMBATS.

‘The Potoroo (757)—The Koala (757)—The Sooty Phalangist eae Valpine Piaae (758)—The Cuscus (758)—The Taguan (758)—The Great Flying Phalanger (759)—The Sugar Squirrel (759)—Opossum Mouse (759)—The Wombat (760). ~

MONO EM Avie:

THE DUCK MOLE AND AUSTRALIAN HEDGEHOG.

The Monotremata (763)—The Family Ornithorhynchidz (763)—The Duck Mole (763)—The Family Echidnide (765)—The Native Hedgehog (766)—The Tasmanian Species (766)—Con- clusion. ie

ee aie Peex KT VI.:<.. Bee VIS, eax VIIl:..;

VIII.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

VOLUME TWO.

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ORDER VI.

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THE’ SEA COWS.

THE ORDER SIRENIA—MERMAIDS—THE FAMILY MANATIDA—THE MANATES OF AMERICA—THEIR “VORACITY AND LAZINESS—MODES OF CAPTURE—TAME SPECIMENS—THE FLORIDA MANATEA— THE AFRICAN LAMANTIN—THE EASTERN DUGONG—THE AUSTRALIAN DUGONG—THE NORTH- ERN SEA COWS—STELLER’S DESCRIPTION—EXTINCT SINCE 1768.

HE Srrenia, or Sea Cows, as they are commonly called, are

regarded by some authorities as intermediate between the

Eared Seals and the Whales, while others consider them as constituting a sub-family of Cetacea. But many parts of their structure exhibit so close an alliance with the thick-skinned, or pachydermatous mammalia, that modern investigators place them in a separate order, preceding immediately the orders which are sometimes united under the common appellation Pachydermata.

The name of Sirenia, which is given to this group of animals, is chiefly owing to the peculiar form and habits of the Dugong, which has a curious custom of swimming with its head and neck above the surface of the water, so that it bears some grotesque resemblance to the human form, and might have given rise to the poetical tales of mermaids and sirens which have prevailed in the literature of all Eastern countries. When the female Dugong is nursing her child, she carries it in one arm, and takes care to keep the head of her offspring, as well as her own, above the surface of the water, and thus presents a strangely human aspect. If alarmed, she immediately dives below the waves, and flinging her fish-like tail into the air, corresponds in no inadequate degree with the popular notions of mermaid form.

The Sea Cows are herbivorous animals, living on the coasts or in the great rivers of several parts of the globe. The nostrils are placed at the extremity of the muzzle, and are never used as blow-holes. They possess

398 _SIRENIA.

only the two fore-limbs, which are developed into fin-like flippers; but the skin so completely covers the fingers, that all separate movement of the joints is impossible, traces of nails being the only external indication of the internal division of the hand. The tail, representing the hinder- limbs, ends in a fin. One striking peculiarity exists in the form of the female Sirenia; this peculiarity is the position of the mammz, which are placed on the breast and between the fore-limbs, and which are more prominent than in the other marine mammals. It requires, however, very great powers of imagination to see in these clumsy and awkward creatures any resemblance to the human form divine; and perhaps it is the same power of imagination which has led to the assertion that these creatures live in strict monogamy.

The Sirenia are much more sea-animals than the seals are; they very seldom protrude their unwieldy bodies above the surface of the water, . while their movement on dry land—on to which they never emerge voluntarily—is slow, and requires great exertion, as the fore-limbs are too weak to bear the weight of the body, which is much less flexible than that of the seals. They swim and dive excellently, but avoid deep water, preferring places where the marine plants, weeds and grasses, on which they feed, can be found. They are very voracious, and like all voracious animals, heavy, lazy, and dull. They do nothing but eat and sleep, and may therefore be described as peaceful and harmless. Both sexes display great mutual affection, and the female is a devoted mother, clasping the little one to her bosom with one of her fore-flippers. In danger or in pain, tears roll from their eyes, and they utter a weak, dull moan, which somewhat resembles that of a human being in pain.

The Sirenia constitute only one family, MANATID, which is divided into ¢hree genera.

I—GENUS MANATUS.

The two species of this genus inhabit both shores of the Atlantic; one ranging from the gulf of Mexico to North Brazil, and ascending the Amazon River; while the other is found on the West Coast of Africa. The genus is distinguished from the following one by the shape of the tail-fin, which is round, and by the thick fleshy dirk which terminates the muzzle. The body is covered with short, thin hairs which become

THE MANATEE. 399

bristles on the muzzle; traces of four small nails can be detected on the flippers.

The MANATEE, Manatus Australis (Plate XXX), attains the length of nine feet, on the coast of Brazil. Our first accurate knowledge of the animal is due to the great traveler, Humboldt, who dissected one cap- tured in the lower Orinoco. He observed that the Manatees prefer to linger in parts of the sea where fresh water springs arise, as in the Bay of Jagua in Cuba, and are very common in the Amazon, the Orinoco, and its tributaries. As all these southern rivers are rich in quiet nooks where water-plants of all kinds grow, they have no need to swim to any great distances; they eat ravenously, and when their hunger is satisfied, they lie in shallow places with the snout out of the water; they are thus saved the trouble of diving and rising, and sleep tranquilly for hours. During their waking time, they only come to the surface to breathe, but this emergence from the water occurs very often.

In all places where the Manatee is found, it is eagerly pursued. Its flesh is compared by Humboldt to pork, but is said to be unwhole- some, and to produce fever. Salted and dried, it can be kept for a whole year, and like the flesh of the Cetacea, it is allowed as an article of food in Lent. The mode of taking the animal is very simple. A canoe approaches the feeding-grounds, and waits till one rises to take breath. As it appears, arrows with light wooden buoys fastened to them by cords are discharged at it, or it is harpooned. In the latter case an ingenious method of getting the body on board is adopted. The boat is filled two- thirds with water, and pushed under the dead Manatee, after which the water is baled out again by a calabash. The end of the inundations is a favorable season for its capture, and the Jesuits used to organize hunts on a large scale. The oil obtained from the carcass has not the offensive odor of train oil; the hide is manufactured into whips, from which the luckless Indians of the Missions used to suffer.

The Manatee is susceptible of domestication. The old traveler of the sixteenth century, Peter Martyr, writes: “A cacique in San Domingo has a little fish named Manato, which is quite tame, comes when called, eats bread out of the hand, allows itself to be stroked, and will carry people on its back across the pond in which it is kept.” Gomara adds that it lived twenty-six years, crawled on dry land up to the house for food, and then back to the lake accompanied by boys, whose singiag pleased it. It once carried ten people on its back across the water.

FR te ~

pave) SIRENIA.

After a Spaniard had pricked it with his spear to see if its hide was as thick as people said, it would never come near any one in the Spanish dress. A planter in Surinam a few years ago trained a Manatee: he fed it on milk and bananas; it became quite tame, but displayed little intel- - ligence, and its powers of sight and hearing were weak. If its owner itepped into the water, it would come and snuffle at his legs as a dog does, or if he sat down would climb on to his lap. It died after seven- teen months of captivity. Dr. Cunningham has had, since 1867, two Manatees in the Public Gardens at Rio de Janeiro, where they were kept in company of some alligators and a number of waterfowl. One of them became very fond of a swan, which reciprocated the attachment, and they were always in company. This Manatee would eat grass out of the hand, and come halfway out of the water to reach the herbage which grew on the bank of the pool in which it was confined.

Some writers raise the Florida Manatee to the dignity of a species, Manatus latirostis ; it seems to be, however, only a large variety, some- times measuring fifteen feet or upwards. They used to abound in Tampa Bay, but are now rare. The one that was kept for some time in the Central Park, New York, was of this variety.

Columbus states that he saw three sirens dancing on the waters at Saint Domingo. Their lack of beauty, however, made him think that “they regretted their absence from Greece.”

The LAMANTIN, Manatus Senegalensis, found on the African coast, is about eight feet long, having a conical head, round and very small eyes, with the iris of a very deep blue; a cylindrical muzzle, fleshy and thick lips, horizontal tail, and thick skin of an ashy-lilac color.

Il.—GENUS HALICORE:

The Chinese and Arabians have for centuries been acquainted with this branch of the family. The old Greek writer Megasthenes speaks of creatures in the Indian seas which resemble women; an early Portu- guese surgeon professes to have dissected a “mermaid”; and the Dutch traveler Valentyn describes “sea-wives”; in all of which cases one of the zwo species of Halicore is doubtless meant.

The Ducone, Halicore Dugong (Plate XXX), is found in all parts of the Indian Ocean, and of the seas and straits connected with it; it

7

' THE DUGONG,. 401

abounds in the southern parts of the China Seas, in the Straits of Banda and Sunda, and extends northward into the southern half of the Red Sea. It is always found near the coast where marine vegetation abounds: it enters occasionally the mouths of rivers, but does not sojourn in the rivers themselves: it does not come up on the land, and any dugongs that may have been seen lying on the shore, have doubtless been left high and dry by the receding tide. It rises to take breath once a minute, showing its muzzle, or even half his body, and then it sinks slowly and steadily back again into the water.

_The Dugongs are said by the Eastern fishers to live in pairs; but this is not generally true, as they have been seen in schools in the Indian Ocean, as well as in the Red Sea. Their form is not well adapted for moving through the water; the snout is of an obtuse truncated charac- ter; and the tail is proportionately greater than in the Cetacea, its breadth being rather more than one-third of the length of the body; they do not possess the blood-reservoirs which enable the seals to sur- vive for a long time beneath the water; and they are distinguished from the Manatee by their flippers, which have no nails, while the two external incisor teeth of the upper-jaw are elongated into a sort of tusks.

They are caught either in nets, or by spears. The natives on the Malay coast spear them at night, their presence being known by the snuffling noise they utter. When caught, the tail is raised out of the water, in which position the animal is quite powerless. The flesh is said to be good eating, with a peculiar sweet taste, and its skin is manufac- tured into various useful articles.

The Dugongs of the Red Sea are regarded by the German naturalist Ruppell as constituting a separate species, which he calls Halicore taberna- culi, from a notion that the Jews used its hide for covering the tabernacle. The AUSTRALIAN DUGONG, Halicore Australis, is undoubtedly a distinct species, and it is eagerly hunted for the sake of the oil which it yields, to which are attributed the same virtues as to cod-liver oil.

Ill—GENUS RHYTINA.

This genus is supposed to be now extinct. The celebrated naturalist Steller was stranded, in November, 1741, on Behring Island, and spent ten weary months there. He writes: Along the whole coast of the

51

402 SIRENIA.

island, especially where streams enter the sea and sea-weeds grow, there is found at all times of the year the animal called by the Russians Morskaja Korowa, or Sea-Cow. As food from other quarters began to be scarce, we resolved to catch some of these animals. I made my first attempt with a great iron hook provided with a strong and long rope. The hook, however, was too blunt, and the creature’s hide too tough. I then tried harpooning. We repaired our jolly-boat, and sent it out with a harpooner; the harpoon was connected to a rope which was passed ashore, and held there by forty men of our crew. The boat was rowed quietly up to the animals as they were feeding near the shore. When one of them had been struck, we drew it gradually to land, stab- bing it with bayonets and knives till it lost nearly all its blood, and at high water we made it fast on the strand. When the water had receded we cut off the flesh and preserved it in barrels. The largest of these animals measured four to five fathoms, with a girth of three and a half fathoms. The skull, when stripped of the flesh, was, in its general conformation, not unlike that of a horse; but when the hide was on it, resembled more that of a buffalo, especially in the lips. In place of teeth there were on each side two broad, long, smooth, spongy bones provided with protuberances and furrows which formed sharp angles. The lips were furnished with strong bristles, nearly as thick as the quills of chickens’ feathers; the eyes were as large as a sheep’s; and had no eye- lids; the aperture of the ears was very small, and invisible till the skin was removed ; there was no external ear. The head is united to the body by a very short neck; the fore-limbs consist of two joints, the extremity somewhat resembling the hoof of a horse; no nails or fingers could be seen. With these fore-limbs it tears up the sea-weed from the rocks. Below them the breasts are situated, the nipples being black, and two inches long, and abundantly supplied with lacteal ducts. When pressed, these teats discharge a great quantity of milk, which surpasses that of terrestrial animals in sweetness and richness. The back is like that of an ox; the tail is horizontal, as in the whale.”

‘These animals live in herds in the sea; usually a male and female go together, with the young one before them. The back and half of the body is frequently seen above water. They eat like cows as they slowiy advance, scratching the weeds up with their fore-feet, and chewing un- ceasingly, but they do not ruminate. They care for nothing but eating. While, eating, they move their heads like oxen, and after every few

THE SEA-COW OF STELLER. 403

minutes, raise their heads from the water, and snort like a horse. When the tide ebbs, they retire into the sea, but return as it rises, approaching the land so closely that they can be struck from the shore. They have no fear of man, and have little trace of intelligence, their most admirable quality being their affection for each other, which is so great, that when one was struck, the others tried to rescue it. Some formed a line, and attempted to keep their wounded comrade from the shore; others tried to upset the jolly-boat, while others exerted themselves to knock the harpoon out, a feat they accomplished successfully in several cases. We observed that a male came for two days in succession to the shore where his dead wife was lying, as if to ascertain her condition. They some- times rest: their heads on the land, leaving the body floating like a log on the water.

They are found at all times of the year in great abundance around Behring Island, and all the inhabitants of the East Coast of Kamtschatka are thus supplied with plenty of meat and fat. The skin of the Sea-Cow is peculiar; the exterior ayer is black or black-brown, an inch thick and firm; it consists of vertical fibres lying close to each other. This exte- rior layer, which can be easily scaled off, seems to me to be formed of hairs modified in an extraordinary manner. The inner skin is somewhat thicker than a cow’s, strong, and white in color. Beneath these two skins the whole body is enveloped with a layer of fat four fingers deep, then comes the flesh. The fat is not oily, but hard; and, after exposure to the sun, becomes as yellow as the best butter; the tail is a mere mass of fat. The flesh of the calves is like veal, that of the old ones like beef; it has the peculiar quality that it can remain, even in summer, exposed to the open air for the space of two weeks without giving forth any bad smell, although it may be covered with flies and maggots; the flesh is very red in color, almost as if it had been rubbed with saltpetre. It was very nutritious, and soon banished the scurvy, from which some of our men were suffering.”

We have given Steiler’s description at some length, as no other exists or will ever be given, for, since the year 1768, no trace of this animal in a living condition has ever been recorded. There can be no doubt,

however, that considerable numbers once existed: and these have all

fallen a prey to the rapacity of the Aleutian fishermen, and hunters of the sea-otter. Attracted by the reports of the Russian exploring expedition in

404 SIRENIA.

which Steller was engaged, whalers and adventurers of all kinds flocked to Behring Island, and commenced such a terrible butchery among the defenceless creatures, that not a single specimen of the animal. can now be discovered. All attempts have been in vain to recover even a frag- ment of the Sea-cow of Steller. Every ship which set sail for the Island of Behring was requested to keep a look-out for them, but no news was ever brought back. Steller regarded this Sea-cow as identical with the Lamantin of Hernandez. It is clear, from his description, that the animal seen by him was a creature perfectly different from any of the Sirenia mentioned by earlier writers. It is well for science that Steller was among the unfortunate voyagers who were shipwrecked on Behring Island, and still more fortunate that he left so perfect a description of his discovery. His narrative was first published in 1749, at St. Petersburg, after his death. The animal seems not to have been abundant even at the time of Steller’s voyage, and our destructive race, without giving naturalists an opportunity of unraveling its structure, have swept it from its native shores, and well-nigh obliterated all traces of its existence. .

This sea-cow deservedly bears the name of the naturalist who dis- covered it, and is called RHYTINA STELLERI; it has, however, been described under the generic appellations of Manatus and Trichechus, while in the British Museum Catalogue of Cetacea it is alluded to under the name of Rhytina gigas. Like the Dodo and the Great Auk, Steller’s Sea-cow is one of the animals which civilized man has destroyed in the mere wantonness of power.

Vit.

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EOUIDM 275 <he APM 2) RHINOCEROTIDE HIPPOPOTAMID& Sula oe ea CAMELID& -

_ TRAGULIDA

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BOVIDZ - - - - - -

HORSES. - TAPIRS. RHINOCEROS. HIPPOPOTAMUS. SWINE. CAMELS. CHEVROTAINS. DEER.

GIRAFFES.

CATTLE, SHEEP, ANTELO

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HOOFED ANIMALS.

THE .ORDER UNGULATA—THE NUMEROUS FAMILIES—THE RUMINANTS—THEIR PECULIAR STOMACH— HORNS—ANTLERS—EXTINCT SPECIES—THE ORIGINAL HORSE PROTOHIPPUS—GRADUAL DEVEL- OPMENT—THE FAMILY EQUIDA[—THE~ GENUS EQUUS—THE HORSE—THE TARPAN OR WILD HORSE OF TARTARY—THE MUSTANG OR WILD HORSE OF AMERICA.

ITH the exception of the Australian region, in which this

order of mammalia is almost entirely wanting, the UNGu-

LATA are well distributed over the world; they are the dominant vegetable feeders of the great continents, and are of larger size and less activity than the CARNIVORA. Among them are the most valuable and most domestic animals which man possesses, as_ the horse and the camel, the ox and the sheep. Among them are the strongest, as well as the most timid, the rhinoceros and the hippopotamus, the giraffe and the tapir, the antelope and the deer.

The order UNGULATA, from the Latin wnguzs, “a hoof,’ embraces ¢en extensive families. Many subdivisions have been proposed; one method is based on the number of toes, and whether they are odd and even; by it the families Eguide, Tapiride, Rhinocerotide are classed as Perissodactyla or “odd-toed”’; the remaining families, as Artiodactyla, or “‘ even-toed.” By another classification those animals that “divide the hoof and chew the cud” are taken from the UNGULATA and formed into an order RUMINANTIA. Among these latter are those domesticated animals which are especially adapted for human food.

With the exception—in some instances—of the Suzd@ or Swine, all the families in this order are herbivorous, and the molar teeth have hard crowns adapted for grinding vegetable substances. In the Ruminant animals, the typical dentition consists in the absence of incisor and canine teeth in the upper jaw, while the lower jaw holds six incisors and

408 UNGULATA.

two canines, which are all simi:ar in size and form. There are six molars on each side of each jaw. The lower incisors bite against a callous pad of gum. But, more remarkable than the arrangement of the teeth, is the structure of the stomach in the cud-chewing families. They first swallow their food unmasticated, and then bring it up again to chew it. This regurgitation is effected as follows: the stomach is divided ~ into compartments, of which the largest, lying to the left, is called the rumen or “paunch,” and receives the food. Here it remains soaking for some time, and is then passed into the retzculum or honey-comb” bag, where it is made into little balls or pellets which are returned to the mouth by a reverse action of the muscles. In the mouth the food is thoroughly chewed and then swallowed a second time, passing not into the paunch, but into the fsalterzum or manyplies.” From the many- plies” a wide aperture leads into the abomasum or fourth stomach, where the gastric juice is secreted, and digestion completed.

Among the ruminants alone are found animals which possess those appendages that are usually called horns. But these horns are of two distinct kinds. The true Deer bear on their forehead two solid, bony antlers, which, except in the Reindeer, are confined to the males. These antlers are deciduous, and are shed annually; they increase in size every time they are reproduced. Oxen, sheep, goats, and antelopes have true horns, consisting of a horny sheath surrounding a central bony axis: these horns are persistent, that is, they are not shed. In the ante- lope, the horns are compact, without cells; in the goat, ox, and sheep they have cells which communicate with the nose.

Wallace remarks that the present distribution of the Ungulata is utterly unintelligible without reference to the numerous extinct forms of existing and allied families; he adds, that we have good evidence that their wide range over the globe is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Tapirs and Llamas have probably not long inhabited South America, while Rhinoceroses and Antelopes were once perhaps unknown in Africa, although abounding in Asia and Europe. Swine are the most ancient types in both hemispheres, and their great hardiness, omnivorous diet, and powers of swimming, have led to their wide distribution. The sheep and goats, on the other hand, are perhaps the most recent develop- ment of the Ungulata, and seem to have arisen in the Northern region of the Eastern hemisphere, when the climate approximated to that which now prevails in the same regions.

rar

THE EXTINCT HORSES. 409

The animals belonging to this order being usually of larger sizé, and accustomed to travel in herds, are liable to wholesale destruction by floods, bogs, precipices, drought, or hunger. Hence their remains are exceedingly numerous in the older geological strata. Such fossil remains are especially abundant in America. The horse is pecuiiarly interesting. When Columbus and the Spaniards landed, it was entirely unknown on this continent; but in the earlier ages of the world’s history, horses of all kinds must have roamed over our plains. Among these was the Protohippus, only two feet and a half high, with the lateral toes not externally developed, the Mesohippus and Anchitherium, about the size of a sheep with three toes used for locomotion, but still unmistakably equine; and in the deposits of Utah and Wyoming, species have been discovered about the size of a fox, with four toes in front and three behind. These form the genus Orvohippus, the oldest ancestral horse known. America thus possesses a perfect series of forms which, begin- ning with this minute ancient type, is gradually modified by gaining increased size and increased speed, by concentration of the limb-bones, by elongation of the head and neck, by the canine teeth decreasing in size, and by the molars becoming larger and being coated with cement, till we at last come to animals hardly distinguishable, specifically, from the living horse with which we are all acquainted.

The family EQUIDA, as befits the beauty and utility of the animals embraced in it, stands at the head of the order. It contains ove genus, which is divided into ezght species; among which are four species of Asses, and three of Zebras.

GENUS EQUUS.

The members of this genus are often styled Solipedes or solid- footed,” as they have only one apparent toe on each foot, which is enclosed in a single hoof. They have, however, under the skin, the rudiments of lateral toes. They have six incisor teeth in each jaw, small canines exist in the males, but are wanting in the females. Be- tween the canines and the molars there is a space where the bit is placed, an arrangement by which alone man has been able to subdue these vigorous animals. They all attain a moderate size, and possess a graceful figure with strong limbs; their head is long, the eyes vivacious, the nostrils expanded, the ear small, and the hair is short and thick, forming a mane on the neck.

52

410 UNGULATA.

THE HORSE.

The Horse, Eguus caballus (Plate XXXI), the noble companion of man in the battle and the chase, in the labors of agriculture and com- merce, is distinguished by the uniformity of his color, and by his tail being ornamented with long hair throughout its entire length. Wild horses exist both in Tartary and America, where they live in troops, conducted and defended by an old male. We know that in the latter, these herds are all descended from imported ancestors, and many authorities consider that those that roam over the steppes of Asia are likewise the offspring of domesticated parents.

THE TARPAN.

The TarPAN, as the wild horse of Tartary is called, is considered by the Cossacks and Tartars to be a wild animal in the proper sense of the word. Itis small, with powerful legs, long pasterns, a long thin neck, a thickish head, pointed ears inclined forward, and small, lively, wicked- looking eyes. <A light or yellowish brown is the prevailing color of the summer-coat, but in winter