Paul Rothrock

Above: The flower of Sibenan squill has rich blue tepals and long separate stamens.

Below. Glory-oF snow, Chionodoxa forbesil, looks similar to Scilla

siberica but ifs upward facing flowers have a corona formed by ihe short stamens. It too

may be a woodland invasive.

Volume 27, Number 3

inps journal

Indiana Native Plant Society

Winter 2020-21

Invasive Plant Profile

Siberian Squill (Scilla siberica): Beauty or Beast?

By Richard Smith

I's January and while kicking up some leaf litter in our woods, | notice the first green tips of leaves emerging. These leaves are the harbinger of the beauty and horror to come, Siberian squill or scilla (Scilla sibenca, family Asparagaceae). | first became aware of the invasive quality of Siberian squill in 2015 after noticing its spread from our yard deep into our woodland.

Siberian squill is a perennial monocot from Eurasia. It winters as a bulb, forming basal leaves that emerge in mid-winter (late January in Wayne County USDA zone 5b) and flowering from late February through mid-April. The leaves are approximately 4” long at the end of March and 6” long on full maturity. The blue/purple flowers with 6 tepals and 6 separate stamens are arrayed in clusters of 1-3 flowers (Illinois Wildflowers, 2020).

The flower is visited by at least one pollinator honey bees (Wilhelm & Rericha, 2017). After pollination, most flowers fade to white with light blue stripes. Upon forming seedpods, the stems that support seedpods droop to the ground, the leaves gradually diminish, and the plant goes dormant. Dissection of the trilobed seedpods indicates that there are usually 18 seeds per seedpod, six per lobe. Dispersal and propagation appear to be primarily from seed dispersal, although Scilla does form bulblets that mature in 2-5 years. The seeds require a period of freezing temperatures. before they can germinate. Because of Siberian squill’s early emergence, it dominates its immediate environment during late winter to mid-spring,. In a dense infestation, there are well over 300 plants (including hollow-leaved seedlings) per square yard.

| have observed Siberian squill in a variety of habitats: forest, flower gardens, and lawn turt. lt does not appear to thrive in marshy spots nor compacted soils. It also does not appear to compete as successfully in lawns as in forests.

lf seed dispersal is the primary source of the spread of Siberian squill, then how does that

dispersal occur? My observation is that isolated patches appear more frequently on human and deer trails. Since seeds are not wind dispersed, dispersal via hooves, paws, boots, and tires are the most likely causes.

Siberian squill has become a successful invasive for several reasons. Its early emergence reduces competition from other species. In a woodland setting, it is protected from herbicides

Inside Book Review Botany Basics Ih ahem aaYae] a


Native Meadow Naturalist Profile Plant Profile

for much of its growing season by leaf litter. Because of its somewhat waxy leaf surface, early surface application of herbicides is not predictably productive. There do not appear to be any

natural predators that | have observed. In fact, the plants contain anti-mammalian toxins (Illinois Wildflowers, 2020).

In garden and wildflower blogs, there is an active debate about the invasiveness of Siberian squill (Minnesota Wildflowers, 2020). Opponents argue that it crowds out other native spring ephemeral species while its proponents maintain that because the foliage is gone by mid-spring. it does not “crowd out’ other species.

To test for possible crowding-out effect, | conducted a small study based upon four 15°x15’ randomly positioned (i-e., using a frisbee toss) plots. Plots A and B were approximately 50’ apart and about 150 yards from Plots C and D that were approximately 15’ apart. For consistency, all plots were on north-facing slopes with a mature tree canopy. Plots C and D were densely packed with Scilla. In order not to disturb emerging plants and to facilitate counting of plants, leaf litter was

Squil I continued on next page

Richard Srnitlt

We ie aN

, Wl JAF) © A i}

Above: A woodland infested with Siberian squill.

Below: An excavated individual of Siberian squill showing its bulb and developing seedpods.


S Y uil l continued from page 1

removed from all four plots on March 10, 2019. Native plants were counted on April 16, 2019. No effort was made to count individual plants when there were more than 20 plants of one species.

Plot A (no Scilla infestation) contained more than 20 individual plants of the following species: large-flowered bellwort (Uvularia grandiflora),

5 cut-leaf toothwort (Cardamine | concatenata), | mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), ramps (Allium tricoccum), and spring beauty (Claytonia virginica). \n addition, there were five red trillium (Trillium | sessile) plants.

Plot B (no Scilla infestation) contained more than 20 individual plants of the following species: cut-leaf toothwort, Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra cucullaria), mayapple, ramps, Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum sp.), and spring beauty. In addition, there were two bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) plants.

Plot C (Scilla infested) contained more than 20 mayapple plants, 2 bellwort plants, and 1 bedstraw (Galium sp.) plant.

Plot D (Scilla infested) contained no plants other than Scilla.

Given these limited observations, it seems likely that a Siberian squill infestation suppresses early-flowering native plants. lronically, Scilla siberica was awarded the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Merit in 1993 (Dashwood & Mathew, 2005).

For several years | tried to control Siberian squill with sporadic herbicide application with a squeeze-type hand sprayer. Since internet searches yielded little useful information on controlling Sci/la, | decided to try more systematic approaches on various control methods, In my short experience, control of Siberian squill is apt to be more intensive, more long-term, and less successful than control of

Ng . es

| Pte

2 » Indiana Native Plant Society » Winter 2020-21

other herbaceous invasive plants in Indiana such as garlic-mustard (Alliaria petiolata) or dame’s rocket (Hesperis matronalis). Having said that, | believe that long-term treatment resulting in local control is a possibility (disappointingly, not a firm likelihood), Due to its density (see image at left), mechanical removal is an option only for small isolated patches. Early spring application (mid-March) of glyphosate (5%) with a surfactant is highly dependent on ambient air temperature and is notably less effective than late (April) herbicide applications, Late herbicide application, i.¢., early April, has the advantage of better foliage absorption but has the disadvantage of the overspray negatively affecting native plants. Spot spraying of isolated individual plants and patches may reduce the spread of plants to the point where mechanical removal is feasible. Regrettably, none of these have yet proven to be long-term controls in my woodlands. Future research should determine how long Siberian squill seed remains viable in the seed bank. But in the meantime, it clearly would help to prevent seed set where possible and halt their addition to the soil. Certainly mechanical removal of blooms by low mower heights or weed eater should be practiced in lawn turf or on groomed trails.

| hope my experience with this beautiful beast provides an early warning to my fellow Indiana gardeners and stimulates more experiments and public exchanges on how to control invasive Scilla.


Dashwood, M. & B. Mathew. 2005. RHS Plant Trials and Awards: Hyacinthaceae Little Blue Bulbs. Bulletin 11. Attps:/ PDFs/Plant-trials-and-awards/Plant-bulletins/ hyacinthaceae.pof. Accessed 7 Oct. 2020.

Illinois Wildflowers. 2020. https:/www. Accessed 7 Oct. 2020.

Minnesota Wildflowers. 2020. htips:/Avww. Accessed 7 Oct. 2020.

Wilhelm, G & L. Rericha. 2017. Flora of the Chicago Region: A Floristic and Ecological Synthesis. Indiana Academy of Science

Richard Smith ts retired and lives in Wayne

County, Indiana.

Botany Basics

Simple Stratification of Native Plant Seeds

By Gregory P. Gordon

Many native seeds need a period of cold treatment to mimic nature where seeds are in the ground throughout the winter and sprout once the soil warms. | tried winter sowing seeds in pots and raised beds where | knew moisture and drainage would be adequate. After several years of trying with a variety of different native seeds and almost none of them ever sprouting, it was time to try something different.

Some experts recommend mixing seeds and damp sand, putting them in a baggie and placing them in the refrigerator for a couple months. It turns out, my wife has pretty strong feelings about baggies of sand and seeds in her refrigerator, especially given my enthusiasm, So | was pretty excited when | learned about the milk jug method.

Most species that require cold stratification need at least 4-6 weeks of treatment. During the period from late December through February in Indiana you take a milk jug and punch or drill several drain holes in the bottom. Then cut the jug around its middle but leave an inch or two uncut. This uncut section acts a hinge holding the two halves together. Fill the jug with a good drainage sterile seed-starting medium to just below the cut line, Moisten it thoroughly. Spread your seeds across the soil and cover them with % inch of moistened medium. Tiny seeds (e.g. the lobelias) can be cast on the surface. Next wrap furnace tape around the cut to reseal the container. Leave the lid off and place outside where it will not be in the sun and will receive rain and snow. Also take care that it won't be blown over by the wind. If potting soil looks dry, it is important to water with cool water.

After 6-10 weeks bring the jug into a heated location to trick the seeds into thinking spring has arrived. As many of you know many natives won't sprout till the ground temperature reaches a certain temperature, usually between 70-80° F. It is advisable to look up the specific requirements of the seeds you wish to raise. | recommend the Prairie Moon website (hitps:/’ and Williams (1985). While a greenhouse is ideal, | use my furnace room outfitted with fluorescent lights on racks. Do not let the soil dry out! Once plants begin sprouting make sure they have good light, but leave the container closed until they are large

enough to transplant into cell packs or small pots. By March (in southern Indiana) you can even put the transplants outside where the humidity is higher than in the house.

In my third year of using this method | have successfully raised Many gums natives from seeds obtained at the INPS Conference Seed Swap, gathered in the wild. or harvested from fnends' plants. These include several species of milkweeds (Asclepias), goldenrods (Solidago), sedges (Carex), and lobelias (Lobelia) as well as buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum), nodding onion (Allium cernuum), royal catchfly (Silene regia), and mountain mint (Pycnanthemum).

| have also trended away from milk jugs to

eT eel the

juice containers, 2 liter Gregory displaying Coke bottles, and even small water bottles. These some of the

take up less room and usually hold more than germination jugs enough seeds for my purposes, which includes a and holding one of native plant sale by our local chapter, INPS-SW, his many successes.


Williams, H.R. 1985. Growing and Propagating Wild Flowers. The University of North Carolina Press.

Gregory Gordon is a Master Naturalist

and Master Gardener and a semi-retired

psychotherapist. He has taught several

propagation classes for SW Indiana Master

Gardeners Association and serves as the Plant

Sale co-chair for INPS-SW.

Editor’s Note:

Last issue of INPS Journal was incorrectly labeled as Volume 28, Number 2. Fall 2020 is actually Volume 27, Number 2, a

Winter 2020-21 + Indiana Native Plant Society « 3

ulapuag aisng

Nathanael Pilla

Paul Rothrock

A “belly view" of purple spikerush. This diminutive plant lacks obvious leaves and bears a single spike at the tip of fertile shoots.

The black fruifs of E. atropurpurea, needed for positive [D, are remarkably tiny! recall that 0.5 mm = 0.02 inches.

Native or Non-native? That is the Question The Discovery of Eleocharis atropurpurea in Indiana

By Nathanael Pilla

On July 10, 2020, three botanists and connoisseurs of fine beverages, Bradford Slaughter, Doug Botka, and myself, discovered

a species new to the Indiana flora, the purple spikerush (Eleocharis atropurpurea), which is

in fact not a rush at all but a sedge. After this discovery, the author found it again a week later at another site about 7.5 miles from the first site in a similar habitat. Indiana State Botanist Scott Namestnik, after being told of the discovery, found

a third population in a similar habitat in an adjacent county. While all this was exciting

for everyone involved, the question, “If it is new to Indiana, why do you consider this a

So why is this new find a native and not an introduced species?

When discovering a a species new to a given region,

i many factors are assessed

including but not limited to

native distribution, habitat, associated species, and even size. Eleocharis atropurpurea is a primarily western pond shore species distributed in both temperate and tropical climates globally (Reznicek, 1994; Svenson, 1929). It is an annual that has tiny black achene fruits at 0.5 mm long and grows a mere 3-12 cm tall (Svenson, 1929), that’s approximately 1-4 inches in the non-metric US. It has quite a wide but scattered distribution, from California to Florida and north to Michigan (Kartesz, 2015). Within the Midwest it occurs in five states, being considered a species of conservation concem in each. There are four occurrences in Michigan (where it is ranked as critically imperiled), three counties in lowa, and three counties in Missouri; yet it is not known from Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, or Minnesota. The Michigan population is quite disjunct from its known range, with the nearest populations being in southeast lowa (Consortium of Midwest Herbaria, 2020).

Indiana would thus help fill the gap between the native disjunct populations, Michigan's populations occur within acidic coastal sand

4 + Indiana Native Plant Society Winter 2020-21

| native species?” came up often.

plains linked with water fluctuation, where it can grow in large numbers (Reznicek, 1994). The Indiana discoveries were all in this rather special habitat as well. The habitat was not only similar

to that in Michigan, but the associated species also matched with other sites in the Midwest, including the rare Hall’s bulrush (Schoénoplectiella hallii) and native Drummond's halfchaff sedge (Lipocarpha drummonal),

This begs the next question, if it has been here the whole time, how is it that no botanist has seen it before? One hypothesis could be its size and annual temperament. Little is published on the germination triggers of purple spikerush; however, it is assumed that it does not appear every year and could potentially sit in the soil’s seed bank in anticipation of optimal environmental conditions. Perhaps its germination cues are similar to those of Hall's bulrush mentioned in the accompany- ing article by Paul Rothrock on the next page. Furthermore, even with its often large popula- tion sizes, itis easy to miss as it usually stands under and among a plethora of other little sedges such as slender fimbry (Fimbristylis autumnalis) and other similar looking Eleochans species. Anecdotally, it was not until | knelt to look at the larger Engelmann’s spikerush (E. enge/manni) that | found the tiny sedge which carpeted the ground.

There is accurate perception that spikerushes are hard to identify thus becoming easily passed over by the untrained or even the trained eye. It is true that spikerushes are typically quite ambiguous relative to surrounding vegetation. Sometimes, though; all it takes is seeing it once to provide the all important search image. After the initial discoveries, | found | had completely overlooked purple spikerush from a site that | had previously “botanized.” Now with that search image, | expect several of us will spot more populations in similar habitats in Indiana and potentially in Illinois as well and begin to gain a full understanding of the true level of rarity of this intriguing plant.

And so, now that | have introduced my plant friend, purple spikerush, please welcome it as a native Hoosier.


Consortium of Midwest Herbaria. 2020. http// php. Accessed 20 Oct, 2020.

Kartesz, J. T., The Biota of North America Program

continued at right

Seed Dormancy: A Watchful Sleep

By Paul Rothrock

"To hold a seed in the palm of the hand is to hold a small future that is impossible to predict. Is the seed alive or is it dead? Will it germinate if it is given water, or is it dormant? The seed could be in any of these conditions and the internal mechanisms that determine which actually pertains is one of the great biological enigmas remaining to be unravelled by today’s plant scientists.”

In light of this quote from an anonymous English horticulturist, imagine holding a seed in your hand that is 2,000 years old. The oldest mature seed that has grown into a viable plant was an ancient Judean date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seed recovered from excavations at Herod the Great's palace on Masada in Israel (Sallon et al., 2008). Talk about an impossible future to have predicted but also the amazement that, under the right conditions, its dormancy could be broken successfully and the pent up genetic potential of that seed released 2,000 years later.

Right now | have a variety of native wildflower seeds that | have collected and want to germinate for my 2021 garden. What dormancy barriers do they contain and how may | overcome them in a timely fashion? The article in this issue of INPS Journal by Greg Gordon (see p. 3) provides the most basic approach to the problem, namely cold stratification? of seeds either in your refrigerator or in safe conditions out-of-doors. But to better understand seed dormancy let's turn to the pre- mier experts, Jerry and Carol Baskin, who spent a lifetime at the University of Kentucky studying the patterns of seed dormancy and germination,

The Baskin's (2004) define a living but dormant

continued from left

(BONAP). 2015. Taxonomic Data Center. (http:// Chapel Hill, N.C. [maps gen- erated from Kartesz, J.T. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America Program (BONAP). Accessed 20 Oct. 2020.

Reznicek, A. A. 1994. The disjunct coastal plain flora in the Great Lakes region. Biological Conservation 68:203-215.

Svenson, H. K. 1929. Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 86:121-242.

Nathanael Pilla is a professional field botanist

with Orbis Environmental Consulting.

seed as one that does not have the capacity to germinate successfully even under conditions that otherwise are favorable for its germination. Given the passive behavior of plants, they distribute their seeds into the vagaries of their environment and seem to “hope for the best.” But miraculously the seed’s genetic code and resulting physiology prevents germination If poor growing conditions are likely (e.g., winter for many species) and release the seed for germination if the probabilities for success are high (spring for most species).

To achieve this result, plants may draw upon

five broad strategies of dormancy, but the most common type is physiological dormancy.

In physiological dormancy a biochemical interplay (involving abscisic acid and DOG1 protein) conditions the readiness to germinate while other hormones (e.g., gibberellins and ethylene) ultimately trigger germination. The seed’s biochemistry changes with the age of the seed, temperatures of the soil, and the presence versus absence of light. This means that the seed must possess an ongoing interaction with the soil environment even while dormant. In other words seeds are “watchfully asleep.”

In many Indiana plant species, before the onset of winter, dormant seeds either will not germinate or will do so only under highly specific conditions. Dormancy weakens during the course of winter until the temperatures suitable for germination have become broad. These conditionally dormant seeds now await a final environmental queue such as light to launch germination.

One of the important discoveries by the Baskin's (1984) is that seeds may go through an annual dormancy cycle. So a century old seed of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) has gone through the cycle 100 times. Each spring there is a readiness to germinate (conditional dormancy). A seed will germinate if the soil is moist and it senses sufficient light to indicate that it is not buried deeply in the soil. If temperatures continue to warm and the trigger of light does not come, the seed reenters a phase of deep dormancy, until the next spring rolls around.

Substitute Eleocharis atropurpurea for common ragweed and this dormancy cycle provides some insight into Nathanael Pilla’s discovery of the tiny sedge in Indiana, reported in this issue of INPS Journal (see p. 4). The seeds of

Dormancy continued on page 7 Winter 2020-21 « Indiana Native Plant Society « 5



Book Review

A Favorite Book for Winter:

“The Essential Aldo Leopold:

Quotations and Commentaries” edited by Curt Meine and Richard L. Knight

By Lee Casebere

Most folks know Aldo Leopold as the author

of “A Sand County Almanac” (ASCA), a time- less natural history and conservation narrative centering around the concept of a land ethic. The wisdom embedded in ASCA holds up just as well today as it did in 1949 when published. Its easy to read and often eloquent style contains dozens of quotable gems regarding conservation and environmental matters. Not surprising then that this book is to this day required reading in many environmental science courses. So, clearly, if you are not familiar with Aldo Leopold or have never read ASCA, you must begin there.

Over the past 70 years there have been many books written about Leopold and his significant writings. I've read many of those books and would recommend most. But if | am to choose a second Leopold book for your conservation classics library it would be “The Essential Aldo Leopold” (TEAL) published in 1999.

Leopold lived from 1887 to 1948, dying at age 61 only months before ASCA, the book that made him famous, was published. His formative years were during a time of monumental change in the American landscape during which the industrial revolution, population expansion and settlement, and natural resource utilization were all plowing forward full speed ahead. Following graduation from Yale University’s pioneering School of Forestry, his first employment

“We end, | think, at what might be

called the standard paradox of the

twentieth century: our tools are better than we are, and grow better faster

than we do. They suffice to crack

the atom, to command the tides. But they do not suffice for the oldest task in human history: to live on a piece

of land without spoiling it.” ~ Aldo Leopold

6 + Indiana Native Plant Society + Winter 2020-21

experiences were in field and administrative positions in national forests in Arizona and New Mexico. There he experienced first-hand the severe erosion and loss of water resources related to years of overgrazing.

In later years he made a name for himself at the University of Wisconsin by starting what is considered the first university wildlife management program in the nation. His interests in ecology and wildlife research blossomed during his UW years. He bought a worn-out farm in the sand country near Madison where he and his family spent many years staying at the famous “shack” on weekends and experimenting with habitat restoration. Events from their time at the shack became the focus of many of his natural history narratives in ASCA. Leopold was ahead of his time in recognizing the stabilizing power of natural diversity. And due to their qualities as reservoirs of natural diversity, he was a strong proponent of preserving wilderness and remnant natural areas wherever they occurred.

Leopold had strong opinions about these and many other topics, and he wrote about them throughout his life. Many of his writings were essentially unknown and/or unpublished during his lifetime but were discovered later by Leopold scholars and biographers. TEAL has taken his writings from multiple sources (including ASCA) and brought them together into subject-focused categories.

The book's arrangement is in three broad categories: 1) Conservation Science and Practice, 2) Conservation Policy, and 3) Conservation and Culture. In each of these categories there are several sub-topics. Each sub-topic is introduced by an expert in that aspect of Leopold's writings. These individuals are clearly intellectual descendants of Leopold, and their words emphasize the enormous influence Leopold has had in ecological and conservation disciplines.

In total there are twenty-one of these sub- topics displaying the wide range of knowledge and opinion held by this conservation pioneer. Included among the sub-topics are forest ecology and management, range ecology and management, agriculture, wilderness, ecological restoration, biodiversity and conservation biology, private land, public land, economics,

continued at right

D O rmancy continued from page 5

Eleocharis may have remained for many years

in the soil. When he spotted it this past May

likely only a small proportion of the reservoir of seeds had germinated, the remainder retumed

to their deep dormancy to await another good year. What was particularly exciting about his discovery was that another rare wetland sedge, Hall's bullrush (Schoenoplectiella hailii) grows at one of his Eleocharis sites. The Baskin's (Baskin et al., 2003) studied the specific dormancy

and germination behavior of this species and discovered a remarkably complex reading of

the soil environment. Seeds of Hall's bulrush require a period of cold and damp but not flooded conditions. To finally stir germination, however,

ee ~— continued from left

hunting and fishing, arts and sciences, and others. The individual excerpts range from a single sentence to two or three paragraphs with most being just a single paragraph, thus they are snippets. As such, they lack the flow and continuity that one would find in the writings from which they came. But when grouped together, they successfully place emphasis on his broad knowledge and concern about conservation matters. Although they represent many distinct ideas, taken collectively they possess coherence much like the interconnectedness inherent in the natural diversity concepts so dear to him.

The dedication in the front of the book is “To the descendants of Aldo Leopold familial and intellectual.” As one among the long line of Leopold disciples, | deeply enjoy this book; it adds a different way of seeing his words and influences. During a dreary winter's day, curl up with it in your favorite cozy spot and let the wisdom of his land ethic recenter and reconnect you,


Leopold, A. 1949, A Sand County Almanac. Oxford University Press. 269 pp.

Meine, Curt D. & R,L. Knight. 2006 (first published 1999). The Essential Aldo Leopold: Quotations and Commentaries. Paperback. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 384 pp.

Lee Casebere, a retired ecologist from IDNR's

Division of Nature Preserves, has spearheaded the INPS Photo Contest and is a member of the Central Chapter.

they need spring flooding that boosts the concentration of ethylene in the soil; then presto, a burst of germination.

While simple stratification will allow most species to break out of physiological dormancy, some species prove more challenging. Those with thick seed coats (e.g., Kentucky coffeetree, Gymnocladus dioicus) benefit from scarification in which sandpaper is used to abrade the seed. Some praine species (e.g., lead plant, Amorpha canescens) may benefit from a soak in hot (i.e., recently boiled) water, while others (e.g., partridge-pea, Chamaecrista nictitans) benefit from heat as if exposed to fire (Martin et al., 1975). One readily available resource for germination tips for many native species may be found at the Praine Moon website (https:Avww. how-to-germinate-native-seeds).

While it is not likely that my 2021 seed stock will survive 2000 years of “watchful sleep,” do take time to marvel with me that these tiny genetic parcels have used their complex dormancies to regenerate, year after year, our rich Indiana flora!

https:/Avww. cotswoldseeds. com/articles/1 80/the- miracle-of-seeds. Accessed September 2020.

* Seed stratification is defined as simulating natural conditions that the seeds must experience before germination can occur.


Baskin, J.M. & C.C. Baskin. 1984. The annual dormancy cycle in buried weed seeds: A continuum. BioScience 35:492-498.

Baskin, J.M., C.C. Baskin, E.W. Chester & M.

Smith. 2003. Ethylene as a possible cue for seed germination of Schoenoplectus hallii (Cyperaceae), a rare summer annual of occasionally flooded sites. American Journal of Botany 90:620-627.

Baskin, J.M. & C.C, Baskin. 2004. A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Science Research 14:1-16.

Martin, R.E., R.L. Miller & C.T. Cushwa. 1975. Germination response of legume seeds subjected to moist and dry heat. Ecology 56:1441-1445.

Sallon, S., E, Solowey, Y. Cohen, R. Korchinsky, M. Egli, 1. Woodhatch, O. Simchoni & M. Kislev. 2008. Germination, genetics. and growth of an ancient date seed. Science. 320:1464.

Pau! Rothrock is the INPS Jourmal editor and Associate Curator Emeritus of the Indiana University Herbanum.

Winter 2020-21 + Indiana Native Plant Society « 7


To promote the appreciation, preservation,

scientitic study, and use of plants native to Indiana.

To teach people about their beauty, diversity, and importance to our environment,

8 » Indiana Native Plant Society Winter 2020-21


Board of Directors


Vice President Secretary Treasurer Director Director Director Director Director Director

Supporting Roles

Historian Membership

Web Site/Communications State Program Leaders

Annual Conference

Book Sale

Conservation Advocacy

Diversity Committee

Florathon Biodiversity Grants

Invasive Plant Education

INPS Journal Journal Editor Journal Layout

Letha’s Youth Fund

Photo Contest

Plant Sale & Auction

Youth Education

Chapter Leaders


East Central North Northeast South Central Southwest West Central


Ellen Jacquart Roger Hedge

Greg Shaner

Sally Routh

Don Gorney Ronnie Greenberg Alice Heikens

Tom Hohman

Mike Homoya

Ruth Ann Ingraham

Ruth Ann Ingraham Cindy Monnier Wendy Ford

Mary Damm

Wes Homoya Suzanne Stevens Mike Homoya Brooke Alford Coralie Palmer Barbara Homoya Alicia Douglass Dawn Slack Scott Namestnik Paul Rothrock Samantha Ransdell Nicole Messacar Lee Casabere Christy Krieg Janet Gustaferro Open

Brooke Alford Jon Creek

Jan Hunter Laura Stine Steve Dunbar Anne Butsch Mickey Penrod

conference conference

INPS JOURNAL is published quarterly for members of the Indiana Native Plant Society. Material may be reprinted with permission of the editors. Past issues of /VPS Journal can be found at

Submissions: Anyone may submit articles, photos and news items. Acceptance is at

the discretion of the editors, Submit text and photos (300 ppi) via email to journal@ indiananativep/ants. org. Query for writer's guidelines. Deadlines: Jan. 1 issue Oct 22) April 1 issue Jan. 22; July 1 issue —April 22; Oct. 1 issue July 22. Membership: INPS is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization open to the public. Join at www, Share online: Send information for posting to webmaster@indiananativep/ants_org.

Annual Meeting Brings Members Together Virtually

For the first time, the INPS held its annual meeting virtually due to the pandemic. Instead of a day long in-person conference, a two-

hour meeting was held to share information on native plants, as well as INPS activities this year and plans for next. Our thank you to Indiana University - Department of Biology, which provided the facilities and internet connection to host this large meeting with 211 attendees.

INPS President Ellen Jacquart started with a summary of the year, recognizing the cancellation of the Native Plant Sale and Auction and the in-person Annual Conference, but noting other initiatives that went forward, including the Florathon, the Photo Contest, and many Chapter events. She shared that the Council has been expanded to include a Diversity Committee, chaired by Brooke Alford and Coralie Palmer. Their role is to actively seek to expand our reach to new audiences. Also added was a Student Council member to help INPS connect with younger audiences. Caitlin Osburn, a 4th year Landscape Architecture student with a minor in wildlife biology with an emphasis in botany at Ball State University was selected to fill this position.

Coming in 2021 is a state-wide photographic scavenger hunt announced by Paul Rothrock (https://indiananativeplants. org/2020/coming- in-2021-photographic-scavenger-hunt/.

Plant photos are needed to populate the website and for the INPS photo library.

Ellen then introduced the slate of Board nominees for 2021. The attendees of the meeting voted unanimously through a Zoom poll to elect Directors Ellen Jacquart, Ronnie Greenberg, Roger Hedge, Don Gorney, and Greg Shaner.

Next, Barb Homoya revealed the winners of the Florathon, including the winners of the Audrey || traveling trophy for the greatest number of species in bloom in a 24-hour period. That honor went to the Always Be Botanizing team made up of Barb, Mike, and Wes Homoya.

Lee Casebere announced and shared the winning photos from the INPS Photo Contest to the great appreciation of the audience, as the photos were truly stunning. See the results at https./indiananativeplants. org/inos-sponsored- events/2020-photo-contest/.

Ellen shared an update from Dawn Slack, Invasive Education Chair, on the bad year experienced by invasive plants in Indiana in 2020. This included the banning of 44 highly invasive species from sale and the creation of A Guide to the Regulated Terrestrial Invasive Plant Species of Indiana (available at https.// uxcExB0 YawlzBix VX/view ?usp=sharing). There also have been 27 Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areas (CISMAs, groups that work on invasive species issues at the local level) established in Indiana, with 9 more starting to organize, through the Indiana Invasives Initiative, which Dawn coordinates.

Finally, Ellen shared her 20 favorite places to find native plants in Indiana, five sites for each season. That show is available at https:/ indiananativeplants.orgAvp-content/uploads/ The-Best-Places-to-Find-Native-Plants-in- Indiana. pdf.

Throughout the meeting, Mark Sheehan challenged attendees with native plant trivia questions. The first one to answer correctly in the chat box won native wildflower seeds donated by Cardno Native Plant Nursery and five attendees were awarded seeds for their answers.

For those who missed it, the Annual Meeting was recorded and is at https:/www. youtube. com/watch ?v=|Rdz3jmdhxe. ¢

Two INPS members, Nancy Hill and Wendy Ford, served as Midwest experts for an article in “Fine Gardening” magazine (December 2020 issue; https:/Avww finegardening. con/article/best-natives-for-midwest). They highlighted five native perennials as standouts for your landscape and, given the pros that they are, gave tips for growing conditions and suggestions for their use. Congratulations to Nancy and Wendy and a note of thanks since they promoted Indiana Native Plant Society in their bio’s as well as INPS “Buy Natives Directory” (Attos:/indiananativeplants. org/ landscaping/where-to-buy/)

To the right are pictures of their recommendations. See how many you can identify. Answers are on page 15. ¥

Winter 2020-21 = Indiana Native Plant Society 9

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The nativar Liatris spicata ‘Kobold’ has several desirable horticultural traits: it is stockier and of more uniform height than the wild type.


Should Gardeners Use Cultivars of

1. The Perplexed Gardener By Nancy Hill

Am | Making the Right Plant Choices?

| love the birds, butterflies, and moths that native plants attract to my urban gardens and watch them all summer long. | don’t use any chemicals or spray for insect control. But lately I've been puzzling over whether I’ve made the right plant choices for them. ve been a gardener and a native plant

| lover for a Jong time. In my gardens, | have | native Midwestern species such as Virginia bluebells (Mertensia virginica), sundrops (Oenothera spp.), sweet-bay (Magnolia virginiana), rough-leaf dogwood (Cornus | drummondii), and vernal witchhazel “4 (Hamamelis vernalis). | also have total ) 3 non-natives like hosta (Hosta spp.), spiraea (Spiraea spp.), and Japanese painted fern (Anisocampium niponicum). And | have

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Nativar Jargon

Straight Species - Open-pallinated plants as they occur in nature. No genetic manipulation by humans means these plants are genetically diverse, Local genotypes (Sets of heritable genes) are especially valued in restoring native populations where habitat has been degraded.

Artificial Selection - The process by which humans choose which plants will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

Cultivar - Plant artificially selected by a grower for certain traits such as height, leaf color, vigar, compactness; and propagated to keep those traits. The cultivar name will include a descriptive phrase in single quotes, such as Hosia ‘Empress Wu’.

Nativar - Cultivar of a native plant. For example, Libiscus moscheutos ‘Luna Red’ has burgundy- red flawers (those of the straight species are pink or white) and is more compact than the straight species. Most of the native plants sold in garden centers are nativars.

Hybrid - Usually refers to an intentional cross- pollinating between two species, sub-species, or varieties to enhance certain traits, The resulting offspring are denoted by a ~*" in the plant name- For example, Hamamelis * intermedia ‘Amold Promise’ is a cross between Chinese and Japanese witch hazels (Hamamelis mollis ard Hamamelis Japonica), Natural, spontaneous hybrids also occur. ltis thus possible for a nativar to cross with wild-type individuals. yielding hybrids that modify the genetic diversity of the straight species.

10 » Indiana Native Plant Society « Winter 2020-21

lots and lots of nativars cultivars of native species. They form the backbone of my gardens.

My plant choices are ones any gardener might make. For example, the species Hydrangea arborescens that | see in our Owen County woods are beautiful but rangy and have small flower heads. Though not a fan of the pink and blue snowball hydrangeas that | remember from my grandmother's garden they seem too exotic -- | do love the nativar Hydrangea arborescens ‘Annabelle.’ Mine bloom nearly all summer, starting with a stunning soft chartreuse and eventual pure white. They are a great cut flower and the foliage Stays nice all season.

And so a patch that | call my native forb garden is not native in the purest sense. It has Heliopsis ‘Summer Sun,’ Liatris spicata ‘Kobold,’ Tradescantia ‘Zwanenberg’ and Phiox paniculata ‘Bright Eyes.’ | know that my nativars attract pollinators, but they may not be host plants. And herein lies the quandary.

Am | cheating nature by not using just straight species? Nancy Hill is an avid, disceming gardener in both city and country Indiana. A past president of INPS, she also has organized INPS conferences and helped develop our popular brochure, Landscaping with Plants Native to Indiana.

2. The Practical Gardener By Jo Elfen Meyers Sharp

ls That Native Plant Garden Worthy?

| hadn't been gardening for very long when the Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society (now Indiana Native Plant Society) was founded. In those early years, Bill Brink and Carolyn Harsted talked to me several times about including native plants in my Indianapolis Star columns. Bill

called me out when | (unwittingly) wrote about an invasive species, and each encouraged me to plant natives in my garden.

Confession. I'm too much of a plant geek to only use native plants in my landscape. But | took Bill and Carolyn’s advice and planted natives and wrote about them.

| started with a straight species of goldenrod (Solidago sp.). | don’t remember which one, except it was billed as