A.

HOGSKOLAN I GAVLE

AKADEMIN FOR TEKNIK OCH MILJO

Bachelor’s thesis in Electronic Engineering 15 Credit points

Wireless Site Survey

Site Surveying in Home, Office and Laboratory Environment

Haidar Nail Mahmoud

Nfk08hnlOstudent.hig.se November 2010

Elektronikingenjórsprogrammet

Examinator: José Chilo

Abstract

Today, Communication has increasing influence on our Daily life. Wireless data Communication services allow people to access the data Network without a physical Connection. This work Studying Wireless Local Area Network WLAN features and describing all technologies and standard necessary to operate this network. This work aims also at comprehensive investigation of wireless network including wireless Local Area Networks implementation and performance analysis. Testing WLAN performance through some practical measurement such as site surveying in different locations, finally measuring the strength of the signals different locations in the coverage area, test results can be used in order to enhance the network performance.

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Dedication

This thesis is dedicated to my mother, who taught me that even the largest task can be accomplished if it is done one step ata time.

I dedicate this thesis to my brother in law Mr.Furat Kadhem and My sister Raya Nail for all the support that they gave me along my education period.

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Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my Teacher Mr.Niklas Rothpfeffer for the all work and for providing all the requirements for this project.

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Table of Contents

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

WLAN

WIFI

PDA

WAP

LAN

SNR

AP

ESSID

MAC

Wireless Local Area Network Wireless Fidelity

Personal Digital Assistant Wireless Access Point

Local Access Network

Signal to Noise Ratio

Access Point

Extended Service Set Identifier

Media Access Control

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List of Figures

Figure 1 Wi-Fi mark Figure 2 Wireless Card .................... sss n Figure 3: WLAN and LAN Network o..... ee cssesssssesssssescsseescssseecsssecessncessssecesnsecesnsscssnsseessssecesssecessneeessnseessnsesesnseessnnetenssetes n Figure dicc id di alada 13 Figure 5: Home Map IMa gesserien iiia 18 Figure 6: Home Environment Route... ecsssessssssescssescsssescsssesecsseseesssecesnseessssesessseessssesesssesessnecsssnseeesnseeesnseessnnsesensses 19 Figure 7: Wi-Fi Strength in home Environment ................... cine 20 Figure 8: Laboratory Environment map 1Mage.........ssecscsssscssescsssescsssescssseeecsnseccsneesssseesssseessssseessnesesssesessneessnnsseessees 24 Figure 9: The Strength of HIG Channel in the Laboratory Environment .................... eee 25 Figure 10: Illustration part from Figure 9 ............. e snnno senor sono teen tentent tentent tnnt ttottttottttottttattttnsis 26 Figure 11: Office Environment map 1Mage.........essssscsssscsssessssesssssssssecsssessasecsasccsuccessecsssecsssecsaessacessaeecsateesaceesaceesneessees 28 Figure 12: The Strength of HIG Channel in the Office Environment .................. rs 29 Figure 13: Survey Properties A n Figure 14: The Main Application Window ........cccsssssssssessssessssecssssssssesssscssnscsssecssseesssessssecsasecsasecsaeesacecsacessacessueessneessess m Figure 15: Set Survey Map Scale Window... ssssesssssessssescsssesesssseecsseccsssecessssecsseessssesessseeessnecessnscessnsecesnseessnnsesensees Iv Figure 16: VisiWave Site Survey Report Main Screen ......ecccessssssssssssssecsssecsesesssscssssessscsaseesacecsasessacessasessasessueessess vil

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Introduction

We will study the Wireless Local Access Network (WLAN). How it works. What are the requirements of this network. Where this network is more important to use. We will study also what we can do to make this kind of network better. We will focus also in this work on the WLAN's strength and how we can test and examine the network strength.

It is very important that we have a good WLAN network design, because the performance of the network depends mostly on the design of this network. We will not design a new WLAN network in this work, but we will study how we can improve a designed network, so it is very important to study the WLAN design procedures, and determine the design mistakes if found.

There are many options to choose if we are going to check a WLAN network performance, one of these options is Site Survey Method, which we will use it mostly in this work to measure and analyze the wireless internet connection. Using the site survey with a detailed coverage map, would show that the use of Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) would be more efficient, with less time spent searching for acceptable connectivity.

The main problem that this work deals with is the weaknesses of the WLAN network strength. During my study period in the University of Gávle and precisely in my education department, we as a university students noticed that there are weaknesses in the internet wireless signal in many places and there are places with a strong signals in a few other places. We as students have always discussed this problem and attempted to find a place with a good signal.

Site survey test will be done at home, laboratory, and office environment. We will start with this work from the home environment, because home's area is not so large and this will make the site survey test easier, and then to get more experience about this test and to learn more about how the program works, then we will do a site survey test in laboratory and office environment.

We will use VisiWave Site Survey program to do this work, because this program is available and can be downloaded directly from the internet [1]. We will choose also VisiWave Site Survey because it supports the Wi-Spy Spectrum Analyzer device from MetaGeek [2]. This device is used while collecting Wi-Fi survey data and working simultaneously with VisiWave site survey program.

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1. Theory

This section will deal with the theoretical aspect of our work. We will describe all information that we need to know before we can do or understand our work. In the beginning we will explain the meaning of Wi-Fi technology, and we will also explain the site survey test and site survey considerations.

1.1 WIFI

Wi-Fi is an abbreviation of Wireless Fidelity, A wireless transmission high- precision speed. And it is used to identify any of the wireless technologies in the (IEEE 802.11) standard. This technology which most of the wireless networks WLAN upon to it today, it uses radio waves to exchange information rather than wires and the cables etc. They are also able to penetrate walls and barriers, with high-speed transmit and receive data up to 54 Mb ps. There are several standards for wireless networks identified by the Institute of Electrical and electronic engineers (IEEE), most common and best known the (802.11a) standard which was approved before the (802.11b) standard. The latest standards today is (802.11n), and these standards are compatible often with each other, but with different extent and velocities [3]. The Wi-Fi technology is developing quickly and we can see it today in many applications.

First of all that we need to use Wi-Fi service, it is a device that supports this technology, which we can know if the device contained Wi-Fi mark or not, Wi- Fi is shown in figure (1). It can be seen in most of mobile computers (laptops, notebooks) and PDA (personal digital assistant) and mobile phones and many other modern devices. These devices came with Wi-Fi mark means that they equipped with Wi-Fi cards. An example of Wi-Fi card is shown in figure (2). It is designed to be integrated with the access points. We can also use USB adapter or wireless card slot to do this work. These devices that came with the wireless card are searching automatically in the area about the access points. These access points transmits the Wi-Fi signals, internet connectivity via Wi-Fi is very easy. Complete WLAN and LAN network is shown in figure (3).

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Figure 1 Wi-Fi mark Figure 2 Wireless Card

Internet Router

- =

Figure 3: WLAN and LAN Network

Wireless Access point (WAP) is the second thing that we need in order to use Wi-Fi technology. An access point is a device that transmits and receives data by converting the signal such as internet signal from the wires LAN (local access network) to wireless signal WLAN, with a limited coverage area that gives the ability to the users by connecting to each other or to the data source easily. It can be seen today in many restaurants, libraries, hospitals, schools and other public places to provide wireless connectivity to every visitor that has a portable device. The scope of coverage of these networks range between 32 meters indoors and 95 meters outdoors depending on the type of the access point and the antenna used. These numbers can be increased by using reinforced systems.

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1.2 Roaming

A critical function in a multiple-cell wireless LAN i.e. ESS, as shown in Figure (4), is roaming, which enables wireless users to move from cell to cell (one AP coverage area to another) seamlessly as you go around the office, campus, or home with the laptop with no loss in connectivity. As the 802.11 standard does not provide specification for roaming, it is up to the WLAN vendors to define roaming protocols on their own. Companies that manufacture WLAN access points have their own flavour of roaming. Roaming is based on the ability of the wireless device to determine the quality of the wireless signal to any AP within reach, and decide to switch communication to a different AP if it has a stronger or cleaner signal. This is based primarily upon an entity called Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). In order for wireless devices to determine the SNR for each AP in the network, access points send out beacon messages that contain information about the AP as well as link measurement data. The wireless device listens to these beacons and determines which AP has the clearest and cleanest signal. After making this determination, the wireless device sends authentication information and attempts to re-associate with the new AP. The re-association process tells the new AP which AP the device just came from. The new AP picks up whatever data frames that might be left at the old AP, and notifies the old AP that it no longer needs to accept messages for that wireless device. This frees up resources on the old AP for its oilier clients [4].

In order for roaming to be possible, all your APs need to be from the same manufacturer, they all need to reside on the same physical wired subnet (i.e., on the same IP network, with no intervening routers), and they all must have the same network name, Extended Service Set Identifier(ESSID). In the ESS, roaming is automatically enabled if this is true. If, for some reason, it can be disabling roaming, just give each AP in ESS a different ESSID.

The 802.11 standard covers the concepts behind the communication between the AP and the DS; it doesn't define exactly how this communication should take place. This is because there are many different ways this communication can be implemented. Although this gives a vendor a good deal of flexibility in AP/DS design, there could be situations where APs from different vendors might not be able to interoperate across a distribution system due to the differences in how those vendors implemented the AP/DS interaction. There is an 802.11 Working Group (802.11f) developing an Inter-Access Point Protocol. This protocol will be of great help in the future as companies who have invested in one vendor's products can integrate APs and devices from other vendors into their ESSs.

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Figure 4: Roaming

1.3 Site Survey

The main purpose of a wireless site survey is to determine the number and placement of access points that provides adequate signal coverage throughout a facility or city area. With most implementations, “adequate coverage” means support of a minimum data rate or throughput.

Right software tool-a full-featured site survey program can save companies significant amounts of time, money and a great deal of frustration when first installing, expanding or modifying a WLAN. Site surveys help plan a network before it’s installed, determine that it’s operating at peak performance after installation and help to efficiently expand coverage or throughput when the need arises [10].

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1.4 Site Survey Considerations

If we need to conduct a site survey it is important to consider a Different of factors that could affect the performance of the Wi-Fi network [5]. It is very important to know the following considerations:

Understand the wireless concept and requirements and how the Wi-Fi networks work.

Obtain the diagrams or maps for the area which will be under test with good resolution with exact scale dimensions.

It is very important to walk through the area before performing any testing to verify the accuracy of the area's diagram or map.

Identify the important areas where the coverage of the Wi-Fi signal is needed, also where users will not Wi-Fi coverage is important to avoid losing time when we doing the site survey.

Use a comfortable laptop computer not so heavy and contained a good battery life to avoid losing our work.

Ask for permission to enter offices or any other personal places to do a few quick measurements and be prepared to explain what you are doing.

When doing multi-floor site survey measurements you need to do each floor as its own separate site survey measurements.

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2. Measurements and results

This chapter will deal with the practical aspects of our work; we will start this section by reviewing the tools software and hardware that we will use in our work, we will describe also how we can use these tools and where in our work, and then we will test the Wi-Fi strength in different environments, and which methods we will use to do that, and finally we will review the results [8].

2.1 Tools

We will review in this section the tools that we used in our work.

2.1.1 Software

VisiWave Site Survey program was the mainly program that we used in this project, VisiWave Site Survey is the software tools that shows what is going on inside the user's network, the program collects detailed data on user's network and surrounding networks and then visualizes data . The program shows even the smallest details of the Wi-Fi signal details in intuitive and informative way The program shows the signal leakage for the area under site survey test, the program also can discover the locations of the access points and determine effects of neighbouring access points, visualize also the overlapping among access points in the coverage area. VisiWave Site Survey program is very simple and fast data collection. The program has powerful report generation property. This property gives the ability to create automatic report with the important data details about the network with few instructions. In Appendix I there is a small introduction about how the program works [11].

The second program we used in this project was Chanalyzer program, Chanlyzer is accompanying spectrum analysis software to Wi-Spy 2.4x or Wi-Spy DBx adapter. This program shows Wi-Fi data and the channels names of the network in table or graph according to their strength in the position. The main use of this program in this project was to be sure that the Wi-Spy DBx is working correctly before starting Site Survey test with VisiWave program because Chanalyzer 4 serves as a driver software to Wi-Spy DBx adapter which we going to use in this project.

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Microsoft Office Picture Manager and Microsoft paint and adobe photo shop have been used also in this project to improve the site map of the coverage area, which we need to do site survey test on it, the map of the coverage area almost coming with image file format (JPG, GIF, BMP, and PNG). It is necessary to do some changes according to our work requirements. These changes such as resizing the files are the first thing we need to do before the VisiWave program can open the file of the map’s image because it has a limited pixels number. The second change we need to do is making the lines of the drawn map darker, in order to recognize the locations such as libratory rooms, offices and classrooms etc after the test. Because the program shows the strength of the Wi-Fi signals in different colures on the map, this will make the visibility of these locations harder. These programs have been used also to draw illustration figures of this project.

2.1.2 Hardware

We used Asus laptop X59SR with Microsoft windows 7 professional; the laptop we used is equipped with wireless network adapter with (802.11n) standard. We checked the wireless card before the site survey test, in VisiWave Site Survey website we found a program which called VisiWave CheckAdapter, user can download and install this program for free [1]. This program can easily and quickly test the pc's wireless adapter to see if it supports all the features required by VisiWave Site Survey program. The program also rates the wireless adapter based on how suitable it is for performing effective site survey.

We used also Wi-Spy DBX spectrum analyzer product from MetaGeek, the Wi- Spy is a USB device, and it continuously monitors either the 2.4 GHz or 5GHzradio spectrum on any radio transmissions or interference sources that occur in this range. VisiWave site survey program records this information and associates it with a location on your survey map image. The Wi-Spy device is also used while collecting Wi-Fi survey data. If we want to accurately graph the signal-to-noise ratio, we should plug in our Wi-Spy device while collecting Wi- Fi data. VisiWave will then automatically query the Wi-Spy device to get accurate noise levels at each survey location.

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2.2 Work Implementation and results presentation

After we presented the tools that we will need in this project, this section we will mainly describe the Wi-Fi testing process in detail in many different environments, and mention the test methods which we will use to the Wi-Fi strength. And finally we will review all results of the test in Home, Laboratory, and Office environment. It is useful to read an introduction about the program that we will use mostly in this section, In Appendix 1 we had written all information about the VisiWave Site Survey Program.

2.2.1 Home Environment

The need of Wi-Fi service at home environment increasing today. The wireless internet at home allows people to connect to the internet from almost anywhere at home, through the floors, walls, and even in the garden. Many people today prefer to use the laptops and mobile devices which work with the Wi-Fi technology, so the process of getting an internet by using a wireless connection will be easier if we have a good Wi-Fi network at home, because it will eliminate the needing to the wires and gives a good internet coverage area. Wireless site survey test is very important, in order to obtain a good wireless network in the home environment, and that what we will do in our project.

After we have completed the installation procedures of VisiWave Site Survey program, and we confirmed that the program works correctly with Wi-Spy spectrum analyser adapter. We started to do a site survey at the home environment in order to learn more about VisiWave site survey program and how the program works.

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The home environment site survey test will be done in an apartment, small and for one person apartment, the map image of this apartment is shown in figure

(5).

VARDAGSRUM

SOVALKOV

Figure 5: Home Map Image

Figure (5) taken from SANDVIKENHUS'S (housing company) website. This figure illustrates house sections in Swedish language. Below translating of these words in English:

Vardagsrum: Living Room. Kok: Ketchen.

Sovalkov: Sleeping alcove. KPR: Corridor.

WC: Bath Room.

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The apartment contains a normal router, wireless -G Router (WGR614) from NETGEAR is shown in figure (6). We checked the router properties and we knew that this router works as an access point sends the internet signal up to 100 feet in range.

Figure 6: Home Environment Router

We collected data by VisiWave Site Survey program with two methods. These methods are Point to point capture mode by clicking at the location on the survey map image that represent the location of where we standing in the real world, and continuous capture mode by walking in a straight path while we collecting data. When we started the test for the first time the results were strange because the strength of collected data was almost same in every place in the apartment, we tried to go outside the apartment and walking around the building, then we got acceptable results because there was inequality of the signal's strength, this means that the program is working correctly, we tried to do site survey test more than one time to avoid the mistakes that we got with every test, and examining the results by looking at the differences between two test results.

The path that we walked along in the real shown in figure (7), which are coloured pointed lines can be seen on the map image. The strength of the Wi-Fi signal can be seen also on the map by looking at the different colours on the map, every colour represents signal strength. In VisiWave Site Survey program dark blue indicate strongest signal and the colour tends to light blue which means that the strength being weaker. Darker colours indicate a strong signal. Brighter colours indicate weaker signals. The strongest to weakest colours are: blacks, blues, greens, oranges, yellows, and reds.

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The result of the Wi-Fi strength in the home environment is shown in figure (7).

Figure 7: Wi-Fi Strength in home Environment

We can see in this figure the location of the access point which appears as a blue and white circle (2). Dark blue colour on the map image indicates to the stronger Wi-Fi signal strength, in the kitchen the Wi-Fi strength is weaker than other places, because the kitchen contains a lot of home devices and metallic surfaces, these devices affects badly to the Wi-Fi signal strength. The same condition can be seen in the bath room because it contains a lot of mirrors and metallic surfaces which attenuates the Wi-Fi signal [6].

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For the home environment we have one access point that sends the signal, the name of this access point is Haidar and here is little information about this access point that the program measured:

Access Points

Discovered APs

“The discovered access points are listed first. Several values are list for each discovered access point. The first column lists the unique identifier assigned to that access point. The next column lists the Media Access Code (MAC) address of the access point. The next column lists the channel used for communication. The next column lists whether WEP encryption is enabled for that access point or not. If the access point either doesn't support WEP (or a more advanced encryption method) or WEP is turned off, then this is set to “No”. The next column lists the mode the access point is working under. For each access point, either “Infra” (for infrastructure mode networks) or “Ad hoc” (for ad hoc or peer-to-peer networks) is listed as the mode. The next two columns list the number of data points collected from each access point. If the client was associated with the access point at the time the data point was collected, then that point is counted under the heading “Assoc.”. If the client was associated with a different access point, but saw the access point while scanning for other access points, then that point is counted under “Unassoc.” (for Unassociated). The last column lists the Service Set Identifier (SSID) recorded for that access point” [7]

Security Unassoc

00:1f:33:45:94:a2

SSID: Haidar

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Survey Statistics

Here is the final site survey test information in the home environment:

Total Area

495 sq ft

The total area is a value calculated from the survey data. This value represents the number of square feet inside the outer boundary of the collected data. The outer boundary is the convex hull of

the all the collected data

Survey Trail Length

194 ft

The calculated distance that the surveyor walked while collecting survey data.

Number of Strides

Ave. Stride Length

393

0.5 ft

This is a count of all the strides taken while collecting survey data. Each stride is equal to two steps

This is the average stride length calculated over all the collected survey data. This value should be similar to the calibrated stride length set during the survey. This value is only included if the Length of Survey Trail option is also included.

Number of Survey Points

426

This is the total number of data points collected during the site survey. This is usually more than the number of strides since data readings are continuously taken even while the surveyor is not moving.

Wi-Fi Only Points

426

This is the total number of data points collected where only Wi- Fi data was collected (no spectrum data)

Spectrum Only Points

This is the total number of data points collected where only spectrum data was collected (no Wi-Fi data).

Average Points per Stride

1.1

This is the average number of data points collected per stride.

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2.2.2 Laboratory Environment

After the first test at the home environment, we got more information about the site survey test and how the program that we chose works and what are the difficulties that we may face while doing the test. We tried all options of the program and methods to make the work easier and faster. The start was in the 3™ floor of house 11 in the University of Gávle, electronics laboratories floor [12]. We began to study the map of this site and calculated the numbers of rooms in this floor. We already have good information about this floor because we spent most of the university education period in this floor, we started to collect Wi-Fi signal by site survey test in the corridor of the electronics laboratories floor with continuous mode, by walking along the corridor and recording data, we stopped walking in many different points with respect to where we stopped in the real and clicking on the stop button in the program then clicking on the start button when we start walking again. For example in the corridor there were many doors which we considered them like check points, Stop points when we stop near them while we collecting data, and again like start points when we start walking from them. After we got the results of the collecting data in the corridor, we started to collect data in the classrooms and laboratory rooms, which we asked for permission before we could start the test. The most important places shown in the map image figure (8) in this floor were the corridors ((113:01); (113:14) ;( 113:22)). The students in this area mostly use the wireless internet connection (WLAN), because there is no (LAN) internet connection in the corridors. Most of the students spend a lot of hours by sitting and studying in these corridors, while they use wire internet connection (LAN) in the classrooms and laboratory with stationary computers.

The number of access points was increasing whenever the site survey test is progressing. On the right side of the main screen of the program there is a list, by looking at this list we can see the name of these access points and the total number of discovered access points, but not all of these access point channels were public channels, because there are two types of the access points channels, first type is the public network which means that everyone can use the Wi-Fi service directly without needing to enter a password or key, second type is the private network which means personal network, only for the person who has the permission to use this service and this type almost needs a password or key to start using it.

In the University of Gávle there are many channels, but the most important one is this channel that can be used by every student in the university, the name of this channel is HIG (Appendix 2 shows the discovered access points for the HIG channel only in the 3rd floor), HIG channel is one kind of the private channels. The students can use HIG Channel easily, by entering their username and

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password, then connecting to the internet directly, therefore all results of site survey tests in this project will be focused on HIG channel. The map image of the laboratory environment is shown in figure (8):

E Aa | ud E Bw | m mne | =

LI

EE Soi

1X0038:011 Högskolan i Gävle, Munin hus 1 Hus 11,12, 13 Plan 3

AKADEMISKA HUS

2001-12-28

Figure 8: Laboratory Environment map image

Like the previous test at the home environment we knew that the darker colours indicate a strong signal. Brighter colours indicate weaker signals. The strongest to weakest colours are: blacks, blues, greens, oranges, yellows, and reds. We will make the test and review the results with respect to HIG channel only.

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The result of the Wi-Fi strength in the laboratory environment is shown in figure

(9).

E L Wk D A e =.

a. m. = B o, -W La | / S de J | E

| LBS

y 1X0038:011 Frio | Hógskolan i Gävle, Munin hus 11 | Hus 11,12, 13 Plan 3

AKADEMISKA HUS —— —— TEST ** oan ae | 1996:0229 (20014228 Fin: 40008462" k =

Figure 9: The Strength of HIG Channel in the Laboratory Environment

White blue circle (O) shown in the figure above indicates to the locations of all access points which discovered in all floors in this building. The coloured pointed line represents the real way that we walked in reality when we collected data with continuous capture mode. We can consider the corridor is the most important area in this floor as we mentioned earlier, because the needing of the Wi-Fi internet connection is more important than other parts in this floor, for example The laboratory and class rooms there are a stationary computers with LAN internet connection. In the corridor the Wi-Fi signal strength is different as we can see in the map image after the test. This corridor is very long; this means that we need a wireless network with a good design and a lot of access points, in order to get an acceptable wireless coverage area. The reason of the weakness in this corridor as we can see in figure (9) that we cannot see enough access points which can make a good wireless network, while in the rooms of this floor we can see many of the access points. Most of the access points that the figure shows us are not refer to be located in the same floor, for example if we see the discovered access point near LAB (113:16) door which is shown in figure (10).

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And marked with yellow circle, we can directly know that the discovered access point is not located in the 3" floor because the strength of the signal is very weak near this access point. This figure is an illustration part which was taken from the original figure (figure 9):

Figure 10: Illustration part from Figure 9

If we want to improve the wireless network in the Laboratory environment, changing the access points” locations is the best solution for this floor, because to buy new access points will cost a lot of money. The electronic devices and instruments in the classrooms and laboratory affects badly to the wireless signal, and this will prevent the signal to reach the required distance.

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After the site survey test in the 3' floor (laboratory environment) we got the

information bellow:

Survey Statistics

Total Area

15344 sq ft

The total area is a value calculated from the survey data. This value represents the number of square feet inside the outer boundary of the collected data. The outer boundary is the convex hull of

the all the collected data

Survey Trail Length

880 ft

The calculated distance that the surveyor walked while collecting survey data.

Number of Strides

1572

This is a count of all the strides taken while collecting survey data. Each stride is equal to two steps

Ave. Stride Length

0.6 ft

This is the average stride length calculated over all the collected survey data. This value should be similar to the calibrated stride length set during the survey. This value is only included if the Length of Survey Trail option is also included.

Number of Survey Points

1579

This is the total number of data points collected during the site survey. This is usually more than the number of strides since data readings are continuously taken even while the surveyor is not moving.

Wi-Fi Only Points

1579

This is the total number of data points collected where only Wi- Fi data was collected (no spectrum data)

Spectrum Only Points

This is the total number of data points collected where only spectrum data was collected (no Wi-Fi data).

Average Points per Stride

1.0

This is the average number of data points collected per stride.

The discovered access points of the 3' floor laboratory environment illustrated in Appendix 2 (for HIG channel only).

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2.2.3 Office Environment

Our last site survey test in this project will be in an office environment, 4" floor of house 11 in the University of Gávle. This floor consists of teachers, professors and other staff rooms. We started to study the map image of this floor first, because we did not have any information about this floor before. It is very important to study the site environment before doing any test. We checked the furniture locations to make our test easier, because the test will be difficult with certain test mode and easy with other. We used continuous capture mode by walking and recording data in places without furniture, because we could walk easily. We also used point by point capture mode by clicking at the location on the survey map image that represent the location of where we standing in the real world in other places where we could not walk.

The most important places in this floor are corridors (114:26; 114:01), waiting halls (PIV; P1H) and two group's rooms (114:26; 114:62), are shown in the map image figure (11). These places are most important than others, because the students or visitors need Wi-Hi service to get an internet connection in these places, while the Wi-Fi service in the professor's and other staff's rooms is not so important because they use wire internet connection (LAN). The floor map image is shown in figure 11:

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Figure 11: Office Environment map image

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The number of access points was increasing whenever the site survey test is progressing, white blue circle (O) is shown in the figure (11) indicates to the locations of the access points which discovered in all floors in this building. The results of the Wi-Fi strength at the Office environment is shown in figure (12). The test will review the results with respect to HIG channel only.

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Figure 12: The Strength of HIG Channel in the Office Environment

Like the previous test at the laboratory environment the darker colours indicate a strong signal. Brighter colours indicate weaker signals. The strongest to weakest colours are: blacks, blues, greens, oranges, yellows, and reds. And the coloured pointed line that the figure shows us represent the way that we walked along when we collecting data.

The figure shows us that the strength of the signal concentrated near the main access points. In this floor we have two main access points, the first one located in the corridor near (Trappa 1) and the second one located in corridor (number 114:01). The figure shows us also that the WLAN signal strength is weak in the other places. The main reason that the signal not reaching the required distance that both of the main access points located very close to an electric cabinet, this will prevent most of the signal to reach the required distance.

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Changing the location of the access point is very important if we want to improve the network. For the 4” floor the information about site survey test are:-

Survey Statistics

Total Area

10511 sq ft

The total area is a value calculated from the survey data. This value represents the number of square feet inside the outer boundary of the collected data. The outer boundary is the convex hull of

the all the collected data